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What factors control urban land use patterns?
Factors that affect urban land use
Transport technology- speed and efficiency of urban transport affects the
size of an urban area, and the opportunities for commuting. Cities in Europe
are more compact as they rely on public transport where as cities in the US
are less compact as they depend on private transport and urban freeways
Historic growth- in Europe, Middle East, and Asia, urban structure relates
to past urban growth. In contrast, cities in North and South America have a
more recent origin.
Competition between land uses- in a free market, land use patterns are the
outcome of competition between land users. Retailing, other services and
offices dominate the CBD as they are more profitable and therefore can
afford the higher rents.
Topography- land use can be influenced by physical factors such as
coastlines, river valleys, altitude and slopes
Social distance- where strong social, ethnic and racial difference occur
between groups, segregation occurs leading to distribution of housing types.
Transport routes- railways, airports and motorways increase accessibility
and so attract manufacturing industries, were housing and other commercial
activities and commuters
Traditions, values, and culture- land use patterns reflect differences in
culture. For example, cities in Europe and north America are different
from those in poorer countries
Local economic system- cities that specialise in economic activities such as
tourism and heavy industry will reflect this in their land use patterns.
Local climates- prevailing winds and temperature ranges influence type,
quality and distribution of urban housing in MEDC's and LEDC's
Planning- before 20th century cities gre organically without formal planning.
In the UK, the introduction of government planning from the 1930's has had
great influence on the land use and internal structure of cities.
Urban land use models
Represents urban land use as a series on concentric rings or zones.
Assumes the city has grown outwards in all directions from a central
core. Each growth period adds another ring to the model, so the city gets
younger the further away from the central core you travel.
The width of each zone depends on the density of the urban area and the
efficiency of urban transport.
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Based on Chicago in the 1920's describes a expanding city due to
in-migration. The expansion of the urban area is due to the processes of
invasion and succession. Immigrants first settled in cheap housing near
the city centre, displacing existing residents who moved out to the next
zone. This process resulted in new zones being added around the edge of
Describes urban land use as a series of sectors that radiate from the city