Urban Environments

basic notes from my book

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  • Created by: Louise
  • Created on: 30-05-11 15:32
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Urban Environment
World's top ten most populated cities:
1950 2005
New York Tokyo
London Mexico City
Tokyo Sao Paulo
Paris New York
Moscow Mumbai
Shanghai Delhi
Rhine-Ruhr Kolkata
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires
Chicago Jakarta
Kolkata Shanghai
1950 big cities
North America- 2
Europe- 4
Asia- 3
Latin America-1
2005 big cities
North America- 1
Europe- 0
Asia- 6
Latin America- 3
In 1950, most of the big cities were in developed countries, now most of the big cities are in
developing countries, particularly Asia.
There was more urban development in developing countries between 1950 and 2005 than there
was in developed countries.
Urban population of the UK is almost 90% of population, unlikely to increase anymore as the UK is
almost as urbanised as it could be. Big cities are now witnessing a loss of population as wealthy
commuters and retired people move into the country.
Urban population of some developing countries is much lower, 45% so the population is likely to
increase as there is room for urban development.
Urban Morphology UK
Orange=Inner City
Large offices, shops (department store)
High land values, rents and rates
Is he main place of work by day (traffic congestion)
Is he most accessible location where main roads meet + has the main railway stations

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Inner City
Old high-density terraced houses, few stories high, often flats and badly maintained
Old and sometimes abandoned factories and warehouses
Areas of derelict land around railway sidings
High rise flats
Some smart new developments
General run-down appearance
Semi-detached houses and small shopping parades
More modern housing estates mainly detached and semi-detached housing
Most houses owned by residents, not rented
Houses usually have gardens and garages with open space between them
More recent and expensive housing is in the outer suburbs, density is lower…read more

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Problems in Inner City
Environmental problems Social Problems Economic Problems
Housing is either old terraces or Above average number of Local employment declined as
cheap tower blocks-derelict pensioners, single-parent families, industries and docks closed
ethnic minorities and students
Many derelict building-factories, Poorer than average health but Higher than average rates of
warehouses, churches, houses and higher than average levels of drug unemployment for young people and
flats-often vandalised abuse and crime ethnic minorities
Little open space, mostly wasteland Difficult police community relations High cost of…read more

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In cities cars cause problems like:
The streets are too narrow with little pavement, conflict between pedestrians and drivers
Congestion peaks during morning and evening rush hour
Grid-locked traffic causes air pollution.…read more

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Local shops and stalls sell limited range of poor quality food.
Lots of crime and theft
Children abandoned after break up of family.
Ways to improve squatter settlement
Self-help Schemes (ASH) Government and local people working together. Government
provides building supplies and people use them to improve their
own home (ASH- Assisted Self Help)
Site and Service Schemes People pay rent for a site and the rent is used to provide basic
services for the area (sewerage, electricity etc...…read more

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Examples of sustainable urban living
Bed ZED (Beddington Zero Energy Development)
Location: Wallington, South London, just outside Sutton. People moved into the first of the 100
homes in 2002.…read more

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Ways to make urban living in the UK more sustainable
Conserve the historic environment
Repair and renovate historical buildings and structure
Once they are lost they are gone forever
Enhance their uses and appeal as visitor attractions
Provide more open spaces and greenery
Make provisions for these in the plans
Improve the quality of life for urban residents
Landscape the sides of waterways and railways
Improve public transport systems
Link bus, tram and rail routes at interchanges
Provide feeder services to housing estates
Use more…read more


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