urban Case Study

some notes of case studies to do with the urban environment topic for aqa gcse geography

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Urban Case Studies
Case Study Squatter Settlement: Kibera, Nairobi
Location: Nairobi is the capital city of Kenya and is situated in the south west of Kenya.
Kibera is a shanty town/squatter settlement/slums/illegal settlement/informal
settlement/favela (South America) located in the south of the city opposite the Motoine
River and on the Ngong River
Over 60% of Nairobi's population liver below the poverty line
Between 800,000 and 1 million people live in Kibera (at least 1/3 of Nairobi's
Kibera is an area of 255ha
People have 1m2 of floor space each (high population density)
Over 100,000 children are believed to be orphans as a result of HIV/Aids
The homes are made of mud, plastered-over boards, wood or corrugated iron
sheeting. Whatever materials are around
Paths between houses are irregular, narrow and often have a ditch running down the
middle that has sewage in
Rubbish litters the area as it is not collected. This causes a rotting mess
The area smells of the charcoal used to provide fuel and of human waste
A standpipe may supply water for up to 40 families
Private operators run hosepipes into the area and charge double the going rate for
Crime is rife and viligiante groups offer security at a price.
Police are reluctant to enter
Diseases such as cholera and typhoid
Contamination of the water supply
Kibera is prone to flooding
However there is community spirit, homes are kept clean and the residents welcome
Solutions and schemes
Practical action(British charity) has been responsible for developing low-cost roofing
tiles made from sand and clay and adding lime and natural fibre to soil to create blocks
used for building that are cheaper than concrete. These allow self help schemes to
The united nations human settlement programme (UN-Habitat) has provided
affordable electricity to some parts at 300 Kenyan shillings per shack
Two mains water pipes ­ one provided by council and other by world bank at a cost of
3 Kenyan shillings for 20 litres

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Improving sanitation is more difficult and progress is slow
Medical facilities are provided by charities
Gap-year students are encouraged to go to Kibera to oversee the spending and to
help coordinated efforts
A 15 year project that began in 2003 plans to re-house thousands of residents of
Kibera. It is a joint venture between the Kenyan government and the UN-Habitat. 1st
year 770 families were rehoused in new blocks of flats with running water, toilets,
showers and electricity.…read more

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Express bus system ­ have special pre pay boarding stations which reduce
boarding time
Bus only lanes
Same cheap fare paid for all journeys that benefits poorer residents on
outskirts of city
Housing policy that will provide 50,000 homes for the urban poor…read more


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