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Psychology ­ Gender
GENES AND HORMONES
- Males = XY chromosomes
- Females = XX chromosomes
- 23 pairs of chromosomes
- When an embryo is first being born, all children essentially look feminine. The production of
hormones determines whether the embryo is male or female.
- Hormones are produced prenatally and during adolescence. If the embryo is exposed to
testosterone, male genitalia are formed and the child develops into a male. If the embryo is
not exposed to any testosterone, female genitalia are formed.…read more

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A problem with the division
of labour is there may be other reasons why the Neandethals died out ­ main reason is that
they were pushed out of their environment. An implication of the evolutionary explanation of
gender roles is that it goes against the values of modern society who prefer more shared
labour roles ­ not specific jobs for a specific gender.
- 2. Parental investment; Trivers (1972) argued that behavioural differences between men
and women evolved which led to reproductive success.…read more

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However could this be due to demand
characteristics? And is autism simply an extreme male brain?
- 5. Tend and Befriend. Women are more focused on interpersonal concerns than men. In the
EEA (environment of evolutionary adaptation), men had to deal with threats (fight or flight)
and women had to protect their young ­ adaptive to group together with family units.
Women `tend and befriend' in times of stress, whereas men become defensive.…read more

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Connell argues that schools `enforce gender regimes' nothing
that boys are more likely to drop out of school, do less well academically and are more likely
to have behavioural and learning problems.
- 4. The Media. In Western Cultures, by the time a young person reaches 18 they have spent
more time watching T.V. than they have spent at school. Durkin (1995) argues that television
provides a plentiful source of sex-role stereotypes. Morgan (1982) found that the more time
children spent watching T.…read more

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Brenda in order to start the procedure of his gender reassignment. Money
partook in much psychological work Brenda, trying to help him to accept his new gender
identity. However, Brenda became severely depressed, and as an adult he ran away and
reassigned himself as a man (david) again, and later committed suicide. This study has been a
revelation in psychology because it contradicts the idea that social upbringing can overrule
biologically determined gender.…read more

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Thompson
(1975) found that two year olds were 76% correct in identifying their own sex and three
year olds 90% correct.
- 2. (stage 2) Gender stability; develops at 3 ½ to 4 ½ years. At this time, children learn that
their gender is constant. Slaby and Frey asked children "were you a boy or girl when you
were a baby?" and "will you be a mummy or daddy when you grow up?" By four years
children start to show that their gender is constant.…read more

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From about 3 years onwards, they can make these
inferences about the opposite gender.
- EVALUATION OF GENDER SCHEMA THEORY. This theory explains why children's gender role
beliefs and attitudes once formed are often quite rigid and unchanging ­ because schema
consistent information is attended to and remembered and schema inconsistent information
is ignored. The theory accepts that children actively try to make sense of the world based on
what they know.…read more

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However, just because they have more feminie play styles does not mean they suffer G.D.
Also, it could never be proved that feminine play styles are a result of toxin pollution.
- 2. Intersex conditions. AIS (androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) and CAH (congential adrenal
hyperplasia) may result in intersex conditions when external genitalia does not match genetic
sex. An individual therefore may be assigned the wrong sex at birth. However, this only
applies to intersex children who are unhappy with the gender they are assigned.…read more

Comments

MrsMacLean

Wow, such detail! Thank you :-)

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