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Chemistry




Unit 5a - Fuels

Oil is the source of many fuels and this section deals with their uses.
Pollution resulting from burning these fuels is also considered.

Energy in Everyday Life

Energy is used to provide electricity, heating, lighting and cooking
for homes as well as the power necessary…

Page 2

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Chemistry




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Oxygen gas is produced when potassium permanganate is heated.

Fossil Fuels

A fossil fuel is a fuel which has been made under the earth from
natural living things millions of years ago.
Extreme heat and pressure turn them into fossil fuels.
In the beginning…

Page 3

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Chemistry




It is important to conserve our resources of coal, oil and gas as some
day they will run out.
Alternative sources to these fuels are - nuclear, tidal/wave,
hydro-electric, solar and wind.
A finite energy source is not renewable - it will not last forever.
Renewable energy sources are…

Page 4

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Chemistry




Ethanol boils at 79'c, water boils at 100'c. If we heat the tube until
the temperature reaches about 85'c, the ethanol will boil but the
water will remain as a liquid.

Crude Oil

Crude oil is a thick dark liquid which is a mixture of different liquids
with different…

Page 5

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Chemistry




Properties of Crude Oil Fractions

1. Colour - The lightest fractions are very pale coloured but this
darkens as the boiling point increases.

2. Ease of Evaporation - The lightest fraction evaporates most easily -
it contains the smallest, lightest molecules.

3. Flammability - This is the same as…

Page 6

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Chemistry




These two compounds have different formulae and although they
are both colourless invisible gases, they are as different as life and
death.

Carbon monoxide (CO) has a formula which does not obey the
valency rules for working out formulae.
You will just have to learn its name and formula.…

Page 7

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Chemistry




When carbon or a carbon-containing fuel burns in air, the carbon
reacts with the Oxygen in the air to form Carbon dioxide.
When there is a limited supply of Oxygen to burn the fuel, as in a
petrol or diesel car engine, the product of the reaction is carbon…

Page 8

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Chemistry




Air contains harmful pollutants. These arise mainly from the
burning of fossil fuels. Waste products from vehicle engines and coal
burning power stations cause most pollution.

In a Vehicle Engine

If a fuel is not burned completely to carbon dioxide, carbon
monoxide and unburnt petrol are released from the…

Page 9

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Chemistry




Food + Oxygen ---> Water Vapour + Carbon Dioxide
{the Reactants}......{the Products}

In a word equation:
I) the + sign means 'reacts with' or 'and'.
ii) The ---> sign means 'to produce'.
iii) The reactants come in front of the arrow; the produces come
after the arrow.

State Symbols…

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