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Arenes and their Derivatives ­ Answers
1. Arenes are also called aromatic compounds. They all contain a benzene ring. This is a ring of six carbon atoms in
which each forms two sigma bonds with its neighbouring carbon atoms and has one p-electron in a -bond. The
fourth valence electron…

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8. Free-radical addition:
Reaction with chlorine: When chlorine is bubbled into boiling benzene in the presence of UV light, addition
takes place and 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane is produced. The mechanism is that UV light splits a
chlorine molecule into two radicals. These add on, one at a time, to the benzene ring…

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14. The bromination of benzene occurs in three stages:
Step 1: If iron filings are added, they react to form the catalyst:
2Fe + 3Br2 2FeBr3
This then reacts with more bromine to form the electrophile, Br+
FeBr3 + Br2 Br+ + FeBr4-
Step 2: The Br+ electrophile attacks the…

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21. Detergents are made by reacting a long-chain alkene with benzene. The product is then sulfonated. This product
is then neutralised by sodium hydroxide. It is an excellent detergent because its calcium salt is soluble, so no scum
is formed in hard water.
22. If a group is attached via…

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C6H5OH (aq) + 3Br2 (aq) C6H2Br3(OH) (s) + 3HBr (aq)
30. Phenol reacts with dilute nitric acid to form a mixture of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol plus water.

31. The pz-lone pair on the oxygen atom is partially drawn into the ring, and this makes the hydrogen atom much
more delta…


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