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1.1 Populations and ecosystems
Key Words Definition
Ecology The study of the inter-relationships between
organisms and their environment
Abiotic Non-living factors e.g. Climate

Biotic Living factors e.g. competition

Biosphere Life supporting layer of land, air and water

Ecosystem The way the biotic and abiotic features of a specific
area interact…

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Frequency
Percentage Cover

To obtain reliable results, there should be a large sample size,many quadrats
used and the mean of all samples is obtained

Mark-Release-Recapture Technique
1. Take a sample
2. Count and mark them
3. Release
4. Capture a second sample
5. Count the number of them and how…

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pH- Affects enzymes and how efficiently they work
Water and humidity - Where water is scarce, populations are small and
consist of organisms that are well adapted to
survive there. Humidity affects transpiration rates



1.4 Competition
Intraspecific Competition
Occurs when individuals of the SAMEspecies compete with each other

Interspecific Competition…

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Factors affecting Birth Rates
Economic Conditions - LICs tend to have higher birth rates
Cultural and Religious Backgrounds - Some religions are opposed to
birth control
Social pressures and conditions - In some areas, large families
improves social standing
Birth Control - The extent to which contraception and abortion are…

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