Unit 4 Citizenship AQA

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Unit 4 Citizenship
Universal Human Rights (for five human rights cases see separate sheets)
Universal Rights
Human rights are those rights that belong to every individual simply because they are human
beings. They embody the basic standards without which people cannot realise their inherent
human dignity. They are universal, no one has to earn or deserve human rights. They are
inalienable as you cannot lose these rights anymore than you can cease to be a human being.
They are indivisible as you cannot be denied a right because someone decides that it is less
important or non-essential. Human rights are also interdependent as they are part of a
complementary framework. They are also practical and abstract, as they hold up an
inspiring vision of a free, justice and peaceful world and set minimum standards for how both
individuals and institutions should treat people. They also empower people to take action to
demand and defend their rights and the rights of others.
Different countries hold different perceptions on how the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights is implemented. For instance in Cameroon you are unable to partake in homosexual
relations without being prosecuted. In North Korea many people are living off of bark from
trees and grass, whereas in the UK prisoners are unable to take part in the electoral system.
Cultural Relativism ­ idea that an individual's beliefs should be understood in terms
of their own culture
Universalism ­ idea that there are beliefs / institutions etc. that are common to all
cultures worldwide
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations
General Assembly. The declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World
War and represents the first global expression of rights to which have all human beings are
inherently entitles. It consists of 30 Articles (SEEN ON EXTRA SHEETS) which have been
elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national
constitutions and laws.
During the Second World War the allies adopted the four freedoms (speech, assembly, from
fear, from want) as their basic war aims. After the atrocities committed by the Nazi Germans
became apparent the consensus within the world community was that the rights it
referenced in the United Nations Charter were not sufficiently defined. The UDHR was then
adopted by the General Assembly on 10th December 1948 by a vote of 48 in favour and 8
The European Convention of Human Rights is an international treaty to protect human
rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe. It was drafted in 1950 by the Council of Europe
and then put into force on September 3rd 1953. The convention established the European
Court of Human Rights. The ECHR is the only international human rights agreement
providing such a high degree of individual protection. The convention, drew on inspiration
from the UDHR, can be seen as part of a wider response to wider allied powers in delivering
a human rights agenda through which it was believed that the most serious human rights
violations which had occurred during the Second World War could be avoided in future. It was
also in response to the growth of communism in Eastern Europe and designed to protect the
member states of the Council of Europe from communist subversion. They took key rights
from the UDHR and placed them in EU Law.

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When a case of breaching human rights abuse comes to the forefront citizens can seek
redress through the legal system. One major way they can do this is to attract attention from
the Media which in turn generates a bad name for the people / organisation who is
breaching human rights e.g. Guantanamo Bay. An example is in Zimbabwe where political
rights of citizens that oppose government have been breached. Western media has then
reported this in an attempt to pressure other governments to act.…read more

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Specific needs of young people in the UK: the right to vote has been debated numerous
amounts of times, normally involving the lowering of the age to vote to 16. Under 18s
therefore have the right to vote breached. Even if the law got lowered to 16 people under
that age would still have their right to vote breached.…read more

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The Holocaust is a case study involving genocide and war crimes. After the First World War,
the Jewish people were made the scapegoat for the ills of the German people and its
economy. Once in power, Hitler's Nazi party placed further divisions between what they
regarded as the true German people (Aryan) and Jews. The first concentration camps were
built in 1933 at Dachau, Buchenwald and Oranienburg but were initially used for holding
political prisoners.…read more

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Doctrine of Pre-Emption to justify the conflict as it was better to strike first rather than
suffer another attack. From this America's War on Terror began against the Middle East as
the main threat, including Saddam Hussein. George W Bush claimed in his first state of union
address that Iraq was part of an `Axis of Evil' linked with the world's most dangerous
regimes threatening the world with the world's most destructive weapons ­ Weapons of
Mass Destruction (WMD).…read more

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Mediation ­ a neutral third party consults and helps the conflicting parties reach a
compromise. Mediator cannot and doesn't offer an opinion, and the parties may not
wish to compromise.
Negotiation ­ both parties can negotiate themselves with no interference ­ private.
However, the parties may not wish to compromise.
Conciliation ­ Similar to a mediator, however a conciliator can actively offer
solutions for resolving the conflict. Parties may not wish to adopt any of the offered
solutions.…read more

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Globalisation is the process by which countries are becoming more interconnected. It refers
to how companies, brands, ideas and lifestyles have spread across the world. It treats the
world economy as a single market with no barriers. Politically globalisation has allowed
countries like China to become increasingly powerful and counter the domination of USA.
However, this has led to issues of human rights abuse and possible conflict. Economically
there has been a free exchange of goods and capital.…read more

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Land Use is the process by which wilderness or the natural environment is modified by
humans for their own purposes (pasture, agriculture, or settlements). It has a great impact on
our natural resources such as water and oil. The major effect of land use is deforestation
which is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is then converted to
non-forest use.
Climate Change is believed by many to be the greatest threat to mankind.…read more

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The General Assembly ­ the main forum of the UN where all 193 members are
represented equally and policy is made.
The Security Council ­ this is where the power resides. The 15 member states are
tasked with maintaining international peace and security. Five permanent members
are: UK, USA, China, Russia, and France, with ten non-permanent members elected
by the general assembly.
Economic and Social Council ­ main forum for discussing economic and social
affairs and global strategies.…read more

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Post-conflict and Fragile State ­ 80% of the 20 poorest countries in the world have
suffered a major conflict in the past 15 years. World Bank and UN work together to
provide assistance and help maintain peace in the regions.
3. Middle-income Countries ­ perceived as creditworthy, parts of the country have
small areas which are affected by poverty. World Bank's knowledge and assistance
can provide a helping hand to these countries that need to help revise their
infrastructure and policies.
4.…read more



This is so useful,thanks very much

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