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A moment is the turning effect of a force around a pivot (or axis of rotation).
moment = force × perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the
(newton metre, Nm) (newton, N) (metre, m)
The load is the object you are trying to move, the effort is the force you are applying to move
the load and the pivot is just the point at which an object turns.…read more

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Centre of mass
The centre of mass of an object is the point at which all of the mass of the object is said to be
To find the centre of mass for a regular shape you simply draw on the lines of symmetry of the
shape and where all of these points meet is the centre of mass. However for irregular shapes
you can't do this.…read more

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Circular motion
An object will remain at a constant speed/not move if there is no resultant force acting on it.
However when something is moving in a circle there is a resultant force acting on it that
makes the object move in a circle ­ this resultant force is called the centripetal force and acts
towards the centre of the circle.…read more

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Gravity and planetary orbits
Any two objects are attracted to each other by gravity ­ they exert a gravitational force on
each other Isaac Newton discovered gravity, and he said that the force of gravity between
any two objects:
is an attractive force
gets bigger with the mass of each object
gets smaller with greater distance between the two objects
So the gravitational force between objects gets bigger if the masses are bigger, there is a
bigger gravitational force of attraction between them.…read more

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A satellite is just something which is lower in mass that orbits something higher in mass e.g.
the moon is a satellite of the earth, or the earth is a satellite of the sun.
There are four main purposes of satellites:
­ Monitoring the Earth e.g. weather/climate (Low polar orbit)
­ Communications e.g phones, TV (Geostationary)
­ Space research e.g. the Hubble telescope
­ Spying on criminals
Geostationary ­ telecommunications
Geostationary satellites are high above the earth's surface (35000km) over the equator
(horizontally).…read more

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They're known as longitudinal waves. This is
how sound waves travel along through solids, liquids and gases.
Longitudinal wave oscillate/vibrate parallel (in the same direction) to the direction of travel e.g
sound wave.
A vibrating object sends out sound waves through the air because of the compression waves.
When the air particles vibrate near your eardrum, your eardrum vibrates. This movement gets
turned into an electrical signal, which is then passed on to your brain and heard as sound.…read more

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A microphone connected to an oscilloscope can be used to show the waveform of a sound. It
converts sound waves into electrical waves which show up on the cathode ray oscilloscope.
To study sound need a signal generator, CRO and loudspeaker.
Amplitude ­ Is the height of the wave
The greater the amplitude of a wave the more energy it carries which means it will produce a
louder sound. A bigger altitude means a louder sound. A smaller amplitude means a quieter
sound.…read more


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