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Life Changes
· Holmes and Rahe created the Social
Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) in an attempt
to quantify life changes
· They asked 349 people to rate 44 life changes
out of 500. The final scores were divided by a
hundred and were called life changing units
· Life changing scores over 300 have been linked
to a high frequency of illness, accidents and
injuries…read more

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Link between LCUs and illness
· Rahe gave 2500 male American sailors the SRRS to assess their life events
of the previous 6 months
· Their medical status was monitored over the next 6 month tour of duty
· The LCU scores correlated with the sailors' illness scores ­ +0.0118 ­ a link,
but not perfect, so there must be other factors
· other contributing factors
· participants all similar ­ can't be generalised
· correlation does not determine cause and effect
· Weak positive correlation
· All same occupation ­ can't be generalised
· All men ­ androcentric bias
· Social desirability
· All American (culture) ­ can't be generalised…read more

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Evaluation of the SRRS
Strengths Weaknesses
· Thomas et al ­ increased LCU · Some events can be positive or
scores predicted increased negative, depending on the
mortality risk in heart patients person
· Rosengren et al ­ higher LCU · Emotional impact of the
scores associated with higher events not considered
mortality in elderly · Retrospective bias
participants · Correlational research cannot
determine cause and effect
· Low correlations
· Lazarus ­ minor daily hassles
are the most significant
stressors for most people…read more

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Daily Hassles
· Kanner suggested that daily hassles lead to stress, e.g. losing things, being
late, road rage etc.
· He also said that uplifts can counterbalance daily hassles, e.g. praise for
work making the stress worthwhile
· Kanner investigated the link Supporting evidence:
between hassles, uplifts and · Gervais asked nurses to keep diaries fro
symptoms of stress a month recording their daily hassles and
· 100 men and women aged 45 ­ 65 uplifts while at work and rating their
completed the hassles and uplift performance
scale monthly for 10 months and · Daily hassles increased job strain and
the SRRS decreased performance
· Hassles were positively correlated · Nurses believed that uplifts
with psychological stress symptoms counteracted the negative effects of their
· The hassles scale was a better daily hassles and improved performance
predictor of stress then the SRRS
X ­ retrospective bias
X ­ demand characteristics…read more

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Work Related Stress
· Health and Safety Executive
- over a third of new health problems are due to due to
work related stress
- work related stress accounts for 30 days of absence
- 2006/7 - 13.8 million working days lost due to WRS,
anxiety and depression…read more

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