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Social Influences
Mailgram's study
Why are some people of obedience
more independent than
(External) Obedience Why do we do
identity what we're told?
Control my Identity
Internal locus Others Control my
of control When a direct
Order changes
our behaviour.
External locus
of control
Majority Influence
·When the majority have influential power over the minority.
Minority Influence
·When the minority have influential power over the majority.
·Changing because you truly believe that is the right thing to do.
·Doing something because you didn't want to feel stupid.
Why do people do Why do people do
sometimes follow a what most people
majority? do? Informational Social Influence
·Doing the same as others because you think that they know more about
it and.
Normative Social Influence
·Resisting the pressure to obey authority
·Doing the same as everyone else as this is the same and seen as `normal'
·Resisting the pressure to conform and doesn't make you stand out.…read more

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10.9.10 ·Physical go along with people, but
inside you do not agree.
·Outwardly agree & privately
Compliance disagree/no change
Asch (1952)
The line task was unambiguous. 123 male ·Value being part of a group when
you are with them.
college students were tested in groups of 7. ·Privately agree- only with group...
Identification public agreement.
Confederates unanimously identified the
wrong line as matching the stimulus lines.
75% of participants conformed at least once ·Does not rely on being with/in a
5% conformed every time group.
The average conformity rate was 37% · Private agreement....Pubic
Internalisation agreement
personal attitude.
little change in
There is sometimes
private agreement.
public, but not ·Artificial- so students would know something is up.
Participants knew they were being experimented & so
the It involves
retained byleaving
may not beis changed their characteristics.
imitated so They
temporary. the
may only behaviour
be is
adaption of them ·Deception- Debriefed afterwards & given the choice to let
group but the
behaviour of the them use the data they collected or not. So they know
with the attitude & after the experiment (did not know confirmative's were
group. They agree
group. of the deliberately saying the wrong answer) .
they value
presence of the
reliant onbecause
lasting & are the
of not
attitude &
behaviours are long
New attitudesadopts & the
with the group.
private both
"A change in belief or behaviour in
Internalisation It involves public &
mirrors the group. response to real or imagined group
behaviours that
attitudes & pressure where there is no direct request
to comply with the group nor any reason
change of private
conversion- a real…read more

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The degree to which an assessment, test or Internal Validity
operational variable measures:
·The extent to which the study successfully measured what was
What is intended, as
opposed to...
External Validity
·Te extent to which the results of an investigation may be
generalised beyond the research sample and situated.
What is not intended
What is unsystematic or
Asch experiment done
unstable? in 1951-Published 1952
War just ended, people more likely
to conform as during war you must.
We are less likely to be confirmative
·Whether variables are opeationalised in a suitable way.
·Whether extraneous variables are adequately controlled.
·Whether factors known to affect participants behaviour (research
Chiefly effects, demand characteristics) are minimised or eliminated.
Determined by:
Internal validity Asch, Sherif
· Estimation tasks used (realism);
·Whether a sample is selected that is represented of the target situational cues (e.g. multiple
population. questions-demand characteristics.
Chiefly ·Whether the research environment (setting) and tasks used sufficiently
Determined by: resemble those that occur in participant's natural environments
(mundane realism and ecological validity).
External Validity…read more

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Mindless Repetition Flexible
No reason for it
·Consistent, does ·Ability to alternate
not lead to between more than
Status Quo influence. People one counter-
must be flexible to argument while
Keeping things the way they are argue their position maintaining the
in a flexible way. consistency of one's
Giving in
Minority Majority
Conversion Compliance
·Once the group has established Think Outside Box Think Inside Box
agreement, this agreement becomes
Group more extreme over time.
Polarization Majority influence results in compliance, while
minority influence results in conversion.
·When faced with uncertainty, people
look to others to establish a collective
frame of reference. Minority influence makes people think divergently,
Social Norms while majority influence makes people think
convergently.…read more

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From majority to minority
Moskovic's dual process model influence Reversing the Asch Experiment
·Majorities lead to direct public compliance ·Conformity does not account for the full
due to normative & informational range of human behaviour. ·Six subjects constituted the majority.
·Groups change over time. New ideas ·One confederate was the majority.
·Minorities lead to indirect private change always reflect a minority viewpoint, but
due to majority having to think about the the group may eventually come to accept ·Subjects were asked to view a set of slides and state
minority- the conversion effect leads to them. their colour. All slides were actually blue but varied ion
cognitive conflict & greater cognitive brightness.
·Influence must flow from the minority to
resource allocation.
the majority or else groups mould never ·Majority consistently said that the blue slides were
change. green.
·Majority does not always rule: Some
conflicts are never resolves.
Responses/Results- Minority
·Control condition not exposed to the minority
Percentage green responses
only said green twice- less than 1% of the
·Among those exposed to minority view almost
10% of the total responses were green and
32% of the subjects reported seeing green at
least once.
·Evidence for minority influence.
Condition…read more

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