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Slide 1

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Independent Behaviour and
Social Change
· Role of situational factors
·Resisting pressures to conform
· Resisting pressures to obey
· Individual differences ­ personality
· Individual differences ­ locus of control
· Developing independent behaviour
· Implications for social change
· Example question…read more

Slide 2

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Independent behaviour:
individuals can observe the behaviour of
others but are not influenced by it
Milgram's study ­ 35% refused to obey
Asch's study ­ 24% did not conform…read more

Slide 3

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Situational Factors
Milgram's study variation: moved to a
seedy-looking office, obedience
- Told workers that a manager had been fired for leading an offensive
lifestyle outside work and that they should speak out in favour of him being
- When participants were forced into a decision, most of them rebelled.
This can be explained by:
· Reactance ­ participants rebelled when they feel their choices have been
· Systematic processing ­ having time to think about their decision…read more

Slide 4

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Resisting pressures to conform
Asch study variations: difficult
tasks, accomplice increased
Allen and Levine:
- offer of social support decreased
- individualistic cultures showed less
conformity than collectivist cultures…read more

Slide 5

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Resisting pressures to obey
Milgram study variations: proximity of the
experimenter and proximity of `victim'
affected obedience
· Space between the person and the
other person giving orders decreases
· If the effect of the action will be
negative, proximity to the person it will
affect will decrease obedience…read more

Slide 6

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- other factors not considered
- factors like time period not considered
Personality differences…read more

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