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Alkenes
The double bonds within alkenes are areas of high electron density. They attract
electrophiles and
addition reaction occur.
Electrophiles- electron pair acceptor
Addition reaction- a reaction where two molecules react together to produce one
Reaction of bromine with alkenes
Functional group- Alkene-> dihaloalkane
Reagent-Bromine( Br)
Conditions- room temperature, no UV light
Mechanism- Electrophile addition
Type of reagent- Electrophile, Br
The intermediate product produced has a positively charged carbon atom this is
known as a carbocation.…read more

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Alkenes
tertiary(3 Carbons attached)-> Secondary(2 carbons attached) -> Primary( 1 carbon
attached)
In electrophilic addition to alkenes the major product is formed via the most stable
intermediate carbocation
Reaction of sulphuric acid with alkenes
Stage 1
Functional group- alkene-> alkyl hydrogensulphate
Reagent- concentrated HSO
Conditions- room temperature
Mechanism- Electrophilic addition
Type of reagent- Electrophile, HSO
CH=CH + HSO -> CHCHOSOOH
Stage 2
Functional group- alkyl hydrogensulphate -> alcohol
Reagents- water
Conditions- warm mixture
Type of reaction- Hydrolysis
CHCHOSOOH+ HO -> CHCHOH + HSO
The sulfuric…read more

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Alkenes
Direct Industrial hydr
ation of alkenes to form alcohol
Industrially alkenes are converted to alcohols in 1 step instead of 2 in the sulphuric
acid reaction.
They are reacted with water in the presence of a acid catalyst
E.g
Ethene
CH=CH + HO -> CHCHOH
Conditions
High temperature 300
High pressure 70 atmospheres
Strong acidic catalyst of HPO
This reaction is called hydration
Due to the high pressure levels needed this process is only performed in industry.…read more

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Alkenes
Polyethene- used to make plastic bags, buckets and bottles.
It is flexible, easily moulded, waterproof, chemical proof and a low density plastic
Polypropene- Used in utensils, containers, rope and carpets.
It is a stiffer more sturdy polymer.…read more

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