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Chemistry ­ Condensed AS:2 Notes


Empirical Formula: The smallest (whole number) ratio of atoms of an element in a compound.
Molecular Formula: The actual number of atoms of an element present in a compound.
General Formula: The algebraic formula for molecules in a homologous series ­ ie.
CnH2n =…

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Reaction Mechanisms:
Breaking Bonds:
Homolysis: X ­ X X· + X·
Heterolysis: X ­ X X- + X+
Types of Organic Species:
Radicals: Has an unpaired electron, so is highly reactive
Electrophiles: Accepts a pair of electrons to form a bond
Neutrophiles: Donates a pair of electrons to form a…

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M+ = Molecular ion peak. This is the last line on the spectrum (unless
a smaller one is shown), and is the molecular mass.
29 = CH3-CH2+
43 = C3H7+
58 = C4H10+

Enthalpy (H)
Exothermic: Endothermic:
-Gives out energy -Takes in energy
-Reactants become -Reactants become

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TEMPERATURE ­ Equilibrium will shift to the endothermic direction (Shift to absorb heat)
Low temperature = Slow reaction, cheap
High temperature = Fast reaction, expensive (fuel costs)
High Pressure = Expensive equipment, side reactions and danger
Low Pressure = Slow reaction, safe, cheap, no training costs

Global Warming
Infared radiation…




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