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Classifying People
The DSM-IV contains all mental health disorders and offers a new method of classification ­ a multitaxal
classification. Individuals can be rated multiple axes/dimensions. It's now more concrete and descriptive.
They're useful to acquire new information. This can help development of new treatments and medication.
This type of…

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Failure to Function Adequately
Not coping with the demands of day-to-day life. Criteria include: dysfunctional behaviour,
observer discomfort, unpredictable behaviour, irrational behaviour, personal distress. (More
than one ticked = considered abnormal).

Symptoms Associated
Impairment of intellectual functions, such as memory or comprehension. Alterations to
mood that lead to delusional appraisals…

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Biological Approach
Assumptions of the model
Genetics: faulty genes are known to cause some diseases that have psychological effects,
e.g. Huntington's disease that leads to the deterioration of mental abilities.

Neurotransmitters: Too much or too little of a particular neurotransmitter, e.g. dopamine
for anxiety or schizophrenia, or serotonin for depression.…

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Psychosurgery brain surgery involving destruction or separation of parts of the brain.
Moniz developed the front lobotomy, in the 1930s, to separate parts of the frontal lobes
from the rest of the brain. This reduced aggression and generally made people more placid.
It's not a cure, just a change, the…

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Psychodynamic Approach
Assumptions `personality' refers to the unique character that each of us have. Freud
suggested that this developed out of an interaction between innate drives and early life
experiences.

Conflict in Development Freud divided the personality into the id, ego and superego.
Id is driven by the pleasure principle,…

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Psychoanalysis treatment introduced in the early twentieth century. Aim was to allow patients to
access repressed thoughts and unconscious conflicts. Freud called this insight. Hypnosis: altered
mental state, involving deep relaxation. Gradually lost interest as it was difficult. Free association:
given a cue word and is asked to say any…

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Strengths Useful approach to disorders like depression and anorexia. Considers the role of
thoughts and beliefs. Allows a person to take control and make a positive change. Lots of
research to support. Despite ignoring biological and genetic factors it's not reductionist as it
takes a complex view of psychological disorders.…

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Aversion Therapy Stops an undesired behaviour by associating it with something
unpleasant. Alcoholics given a drug that produces nausea at the same time. Nail biting, bad
tasting coating.

Systematic Desensitisation Treatment for phobias. The person makes a `feat
hierarchy'. Put into situation of their least feared event. Encouraged to use…

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