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Definitions of abnormality
Deviation from Social Norms
SOCIETY SET STANDARDS OUTSIDE = ABNORMALITY
Failure to function adequately
PERSONAL DISTRESS, OBSERVER DISCOMFORT, IRRATIONAL,
MALADAPTIVE, UNPREDICTABLE AND VIOLATION OF MORAL
STANDARDS
Deviation from ideal mental health
ACCURATE PERCEPTION OF REALITY, AUTONOMY, SELF
ACTUALISATION, ADAPTION, SENSE OF IDENTITY, MASTERY
OF ENVIRONMENT…read more

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Deviation from Social Norms
Impact behaviour could have on society and the needs/expectations of a `successful'
society are considered.
Can be positive (suffragettes/suffragists, freedom fighters, civil rights movement)
But...could the definition be misused?
But...this definition has no long-term use and is culture bound.
What society considers normal/abnormal varies over time and cultures.
Who sets the rules?
Who enforces them?
Subjective as based on social rule.
Not all abnormal is undesirable or norm desirable.
·Society sets standards "NORMS"
Needs of society Time Bound
considered ·Behaviours which are outside
Culture Bound expected standards are
Simplistic "ABNORMAL"
Subjective…read more

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Failure to function adequately
Functioning is easy to judge and judge when treatment required, is this the point of
defining what is abnormal?
But.....who judges adequacy?
Who sets the expected/accepted levels of functioning?
Does adequacy of functioning differ between cultures?
Is this definition culturally relative?
But.....abnormality is not always accompanied by dysfunction
·Violation of moral
standards
·Personal Distress
Judging is possible Functional does not =
abnormal ·Maladaptive
·Irrationality
Who decides? ·Unpredictable
How to help? ·Observer Discomfort…read more

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Deviation from Ideal mental
Health
A positive approach which focuses on the desirable.
But...if left to individual to identify, what if they cannot realise and are not treated
But... how many of the criteria does a person have to fail to be abnormal?
If definition based on society/cultural norms then how can it be used to diagnose and
threat those with/from other sub-cultures?
Criteria is difficult for most to attain.
But...is this definition relative only to western cultures?
Most of criteria outlines are subjective and difficult and thus difficult to meausure.
·Inaccurate perception of reality
Focus on Not measurable ·Autonomy
ideal ·Self actualisation
Subjective ·Adaption
Unattainable ·Sense of identity
Individualist cultures only ·Mastery of environment…read more

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Psychopathology how experiences effect the mind
· ID-Ego-Superego (Freud) o First theory to highlight psychological
factors (very influential).
· Psychosexual Stages x5 (Freud) o Stresses role of unconsciousness
o Time bound
· Importance of Childhood Experiences o Blames parents
o Suitable only for certain individuals
· Defence Mechanism (link to experiences) o Little empirical evidence
oFreud's theory had limited testing (girls)
· The unconscious (defence mechanism & dreams)
o
oTime consuming
o Costly
o Only some individuals
Counter Conditioning:
o Little empirical evidence
· Systematic desensitisation
Dream Analysis Freud Free Association
Free Association Unconscious Dreams
Psychoanalysis Counter Conditioning…read more

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