Unit 2 Coastal Landscapes & Watery World

Notes with case studys for Coastal Landscapes and Watery World Unit 2 Edexcel Geography.

Case studies include:


-3 gorges dam

-tigris euphrates river system

there were a few silly mistakes (spellings, etc.)

feel free to leave comment with corrections but generally notes are accurate

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  • Created on: 07-05-12 20:35
Preview of Unit 2 Coastal Landscapes & Watery World

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Unit 2-Edexcel GCSE
Pavandeep Garcha 1
Specification A

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Why do waves break?
Waves are the result of the wind blowing over the
sea. As they approach land they break.
The bottom of the wave touches the sand and
slows down due to increased friction. The top of
the wave becomes higher and steeper until it
topples over.…read more

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Destructive Waves
· Mainly responsible for coastal erosion & and taking
sediment away
· Backwash stronger than swash(makes it able to carry
sediment away)
· Break frequently(10-15 a minute)
· High In proportion to length
· Generally found on steep beaches
Unit 2-Edexcel GCSE
Pavandeep Garcha 3
Specification A…read more

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Constructive Waves
· Responsible deposition
· Swash stronger than backwash (makes it able to deposit
· Break in frequently(10 or fewer a minute)
· Long in relation to height
· Generally found on gently sloping beaches
Unit 2-Edexcel GCSE
Pavandeep Garcha 4
Specification A…read more

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Hydraulic action
· Pressure of water being thrown against the cliffs by the
· Water compresses air in faults
· Puts pressure on rock
Corrasion (Abrasion)
· Sand and pebbles carried within waves
· Thrown against cliff with force
· Sand and pebbles break off more rock
Corrosion (Solution)
· Chemical reaction
· Chemical action of seawater
· Dissolves rocks from cliff
· Particularly evident with limestone and chalk cliffs
· Wearing away rock in sea
· Rocks clash until smooth rocks…read more

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Physical (Freeze-Thaw)
· Water in rocks freeze and expand
· Puts pressure on surrounding rock
· Due to pressure from frozen water-fragments of rock break
Chemical (Acid Rain)
· Rainwater contains weak acids
· Rainwater reacts with rocks and cause the rocks to breakup
or disintegrate
Biological (Plants and Animals)
· Roots developing in cracks-force their way through cracks
and break them up
· Burrowing animals, such as rabbits can be responsible for
further break-up of rocks
Unit 2-Edexcel GCSE
Pavandeep Garcha 6…read more

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Mass Movement
Mass Movement is when material moves down a slope due to
Soil Creep
· Slowest downhill movement of soil
· Gravity will pull the water that is contained in the soil down
the slope
· Soil will move with water
· Happens very slowly (not possible to see)
· Moves more quickly during heavy rainfall
· Slope appears rippled (like sheep paths around hill)
· Ripples known as terracettes
· Most common on coast
· A.K.…read more

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· Headlands are formed when the sea attacks a section of
coast with strips of hard and soft rock.
· The bands of soft rock, such as sand and clay, erode more
quickly than those of more resistant rock, such as chalk.
· This leaves a section of land jutting out into the sea called a
The areas where the soft rock has eroded away, next to the
headland, are called bays.…read more

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Cliffs and Wave-Cut platforms
· Headlands are usually formed from cliffs
· Sea erodes cliff by hydraulic action and corrasion (Abrasion)
· It cuts the cliff and forms a wave-cut notch
· An overhang of rock will form above this notch
· It will fall into the sea as a result of pressure from its own
weight and the pull of gravity
· Sea will continue to attack the cliff and form another notch
· In this way the cliff will retreat, becoming higher and…read more

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Caves, Arches, Stacks and Stumps
· These are formed in rocks with a fault or line of weakness
· Hydraulic action will erode this fault
· The fault will widen in time and form cave
· If fault is in a headland , caves are likely to form on both sides
· When the back of the caves meet an arch is formed
· The arch will gradually become bigger until it can no longer
support the top of the arch.…read more


conor Kavanagh

I worry about revising from a website that cannot get simple grammar correct.

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