Unit 2: Climate Change & Unit 3: Battle for the Biosphere (Full marks revision materials!!)

Using this own-written revision material I got full marks on the exam. I hope you find this as helpful as I did.

Unit 2:

The mega fauna, greenhouse effect, Little Ice Age, Natural reasons for climate change, climate change case studies.

Unit 3:

Threats to biodiversity, Goods, services & threats of rainforest, conserving the biosphere global, local & national shemes, sustainable managment,

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  • Created by: Belvast
  • Created on: 24-10-13 21:05
Preview of Unit 2: Climate Change & Unit 3: Battle for the Biosphere (Full marks revision materials!!)

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Climate Change
Climate ­ The average weather conditions measured over 30years
Stratosphere ­ The layer of air 10-50km above the troposphere, the cloudly layer we live in.
Megafauna ­ `Big animals', 40kg+
Food chain ­ Chains of animals depending on each other for nutrients and energy.
Glacials ­ Cold periods, some glacial periods become Ice Ages
Interglacials ­ Warm periods.
Natural Reasons for Climate change
Volcanic Eruptions ­ Very large and explosive volcanic eruptions produce ash and sulphur
dioxide gas. If this cloud of gas rises high enough it will spread in the earth's stratosphere by
high-level winds. This may stop some sunlight reaching the Earth's surface; hence the sunlight's
reflected back into surface. This will cool the planet and lower average temperature depends on
the size of ash & cloud.
Sunspots ­ Black area on the surface of the sun. Tell us how active the sun is, changes in
amount of sunlight reaching the earth based on none or a lot of these spots. The more there are,
the hotter it gets. The less they are, the cooler it gets.
Milankovitch Cycle ­ As the earth orbits around the sun, it wobbles on its orbit. It can wobble
up to 23degrees, which can alter the global temperature by a lot. When it wobbles away, the
climate will get cooler. When it wobbles toward the sun, the climate will get hotter.
How do we know of climate in the past?
Fossils ­ plants, animals and pollen that no longer live in the UK
Landforms ­ Like the U-Shaped valley left by retreating glaciers
Samples ­ Ice sheets of Greenland & Antarctica. Each layer is one of snowfall.
Little Ice Age
Evidence for Little Ice Age
Landscape paintings done at the time show winter landscapes.
Grape harvest data used to reconstruct temperature in Paris between 1370 to 1879.
Tree-ring growth was often slow during winter in the 1700s.
Impacts of the Little Ice Age
On people
Food prices increased
Ice lakes burst periodically destroying hundreds of building and killing people
Population decrease ­ people died of cold.
On farming
Changing times of harvest
New crops to adapt to the climate (less tropical)

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The Extinction of Mega Fauna
Climatic cause:
Rapid climate shifts at the end of the Ice Age altered the pattern of North American vegetation, shrinking the
habitats of the big mammals until they became extinct.
Human cause:
Stone Age immigrants from Asia appeared in North America and haunted large mammals to extinction. The
animals did not recognise humans as predators, so they were an easy target.
The Green House Effect
Greenhouse gases make the temperature on earth about 16°C warmer.…read more

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Case Studies on climate change
Developed Country: Impact of Climate Change on the U.K.…read more

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Battle for the Biosphere
Biodiversity ­ The variety of different species
Keystone Specie ­ A specie which has a particularly large effect on other living organisms.
Islandisation ­ A land that is cut off from any other habitat, making it unique.
Biodiversity Threats:
Habitat destruction (Fynbos)
40% habitat destroyed due to development of Cape Town ­ agriculture & industrialisation, causing decrease
in some species or even extinction.
Alien Species (Hawaii)
Lost 50% of its native species (especially snails and rats) due to alien species.…read more

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Conserving the Biosphere
Global Schemes
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)
Signed by 166 countries, in 1973, CITES is a national agreement between governments to ensure that
international trade in species of wild animals & plants does not threaten their survival.
This means that rare and endangered species are protected from being captured and sold. This is
Designed to stop poaching in national parks. For example, it stops handbags being made from crocodile.…read more


Mr A Gibson

A good range of items and examples relating to climate change and sustainability - whatever exam board you are studying this is really worthwhile adding to your collection of notes.


thanks for making my life 100x easier :D

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