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Biology
Unit 2


All organisms are made of cells.
Cell wall ­ strengthens cell
Permanent vacuole ­ filled with sap to support cell
Cytoplasm ­ chemical reactions
Cell membrane ­ controls movement in and out of cell
Chloroplasts ­ contains chlorophyll which absorbs light to make energy
Ribosomes ­ Protein…

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Factors affecting photosynthesis are temperature, carbon dioxide concentration and light
intensity
A greenhouse controls these
A lack of nitrates will cause stunted growth
A lack of magnesium will cause chlorophyll shortage and leads to yellow leaves.
The transfer of energy is shown in a food chain
Pyramids of biomass are…

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Amylase digests starch into sugars, protease digests proteins into amino acids and lipase
digests lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.
Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder before being released into the
small intestine.
It neutralises acid do produce alkaline conditions in which the enzymes…

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Ultimately, the sex of an individual is decided if the ovum is fertilised by an X-carrying sperm
of a Y-carrying sperm
The ovum is always an X-chromosome
Mitosis is the division of body cells to produce new cells.
This occurs in growth, repair and asexual reproduction.
Before the cell divides,…

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Unit 3


Lungs
o Bronchus, branch of trachea
o Bronchiole, one of branches
o Rib muscles can raise and lower ribs
o Alveoli, air sacs, good blood supply, moist
Stomata are holes, guard cells close stomata




Hearty has double circulation.
Vein goes towards heart
Artery goes away from heart.
Capillaries…

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During exercise
o Arteries dilate
o Depth and rate of breathing increase
o Supply of oxygen and glucose increased
o Glycogen broken down.
Kidney controls concentration of dissolved substances in blood
Removes urea
Made of tubules and blood vessels.
Tubules group to form ureter
Ultrafiltration ­ squeezed, small molecules +…

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Contains sugar and other nutrients in medium ­ used in growth before mould starts to make
penicillin
Mycoprotein
o Protein rich food, made using Fusarium
o Grown in aerobic condition
o Biomass harvested
Biogas production needs anaerobic conditions
Needs organic or waste material containing carbohydrates
Many microorganisms used
Ethanol can…

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