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Slide 1

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· Definitions of abnormality:
- deviation from social norms
- failure to function adequately
- deviation from ideal mental health
·Approaches and Treatments:
- Biological
- Psychodynamic
- Behavioural
- Cognitive…read more

Slide 2

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Deviation from Social Norms
behaving in an
antisocial way · varies as times change, e.g.
smacking children, homosexuality,
against laws, or having a baby out of wedlock
against customs · bound by culture
we live by, or · defined by the context of the
what people behaviour, e.g. being naked in the
shower/ being naked in a shop
consider normal
behaviour · is choosing a non-conformist
lifestyle such a bad thing?…read more

Slide 3

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Failure To Function Adequately
not being able to cope with
everyday life
not being able to hold down a job, · most people experience extreme
have good relationships, etc. stress at some time in their lives
Rosenhan and Seligman identified 7 · is the failure to function the cause or
symptom of mental illness?
abnormal characteristics:
1. Suffering/being distressed · bizarre behaviour does not always
2. Maladaptive cause distress, e.g. a man dressing as
3. Irrational a woman
4. Unpredictable · depends on the culture
5. Unconventional
6. Causing discomfort to others · people can function adequately
without meeting all of the
7. No moral standards characteristics; most people do…read more

Slide 4

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Deviation from Ideal Mental Health
defines an ideal state of
mental health Limitations:
if a person does not match the · many of the concepts are
criteria, they are considered vague and difficult for most
people to achieve
Jahoda named 6
· few people meet all 6 criteria
characteristics of ideal mental
· it is difficult to diagnose if
1. good self-esteem
someone does not have an
2. ability to self-actualise ability
(fulfilling potential)
3. ability to resist stress · bound by culture, e.g.
4. personal autonomy collectivist cultures do not have
(independence) self - centered goals
5. accurate sense of reality
6. ability to adapt…read more

Slide 5

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Biological Approach
· all mental disorders linked to a change in
the body Strengths Weaknesses
· such changes are caused by 1 of 4 factors:
Historically, this Does not consider
model had lead to psychological and
Genetic factors
Infection the more humane social factors ­ it is
Schizophrenia ­
Schizophrenia ­ mothers - found in chromosome 5 treatment of reductionist
had flu while pregnant - concordance rates in twins mental illness, not
blaming it on
predisposes you to illness, but demons!
Biochemical Imbalance stress switches it on
Physical causes Factors could be
Depression ­ low levels can be treated the cause or the
of serotonin successfully symptom
Schizophrenia ­ high Neuroanatomy
levels of dopamine Problems within the brain
Genetic testing Concordance rates
· mental disorders have a physical cause, they can be used are never 100%
should be treated physically, using drugs, surgery or which suggests
other treatment of the body other factors
· mental disorders should be approached in the
same way as physical disorders: record symptoms
identify a syndrome
diagnose the disorder
prescribe treatment…read more

Slide 6

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Biological Approach
Drug Treatment Electroconvulsive
Therapy Psychosurgery
- Antidepressants
- Passing an electric - Damages the brain to
- Antipsychotics current through the brain change behaviour
- Altering neurotransmitter - Alters neurotransmitter - Frontal lobotomies
activity activity
Strengths - It is now less barbaric,
patient is sedated - Made patients
- Can help people back
manageable and more
towards a normal life - Can be an effective last placid
Weaknesses Weaknesses
- Patients often became
- Do not help phobias or - Can lead to long term passive and
eating disorders memory impairment unresponsive
- Only treat symptoms - May not be able to gain - Major ethical issues
full consent from some
- Side effects patients - Unpredictable and
irreversible…read more

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