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The Origins of Conflict 1455

Henry VI ­ Role in starting the conflict

Issue Consequences
Claim to throne Had rival claim to throne from
Descendant of 3rd son of Edward Richard Duke of York
III, whereas RDY1 was 2nd son. Could be thrown off

Foreign Policy English could be expelled…

Page 2

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Admitted onto council
Suspended sentence of attainder
Rallied army from support ­ became strong leader
Consequences for Henry & Marge
Shown how easy it was to take over London
Lost support ­ stress could have led to catatonic schizophrenia
Believed it was set up by Rich ­ became aggressive towards…

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York became protector to restore law and order
Exposed Henry's weaknesses ­ lack of control over nobles
Conflict between York & Lancs gave nobles opportunity to take sides
Armies at disposal because of bastard feudalism


The Yorkist Challenge 14551461
Timeline:
1453: Henry VI suffers mental collapse
1455: First Battle of…

Page 4

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In late 1460, York marched to London and placed hand on throne ­ there was silence ­
lack of support (going against God).


Act of Accord (Oct 1460)
Richard tried to take throne. A of A was a compromise ­ Henry remains King until he
dies, then York & sons…

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Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville
Warwick had been negotiating a bride with the French
EW was not of aristocratic rank
Widow of Lancastrian knight ­ strong connections
She was keen to build up power of her family
Had 14 siblings ­ married off to rich & wealthy aristocracy
Dilute royal blood…

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Warwick's rift with Ed deepened.
France became an enemy
Warwick's personal alliance with Louis strengthened

How did Warwick rebel?
Alliance with George Duke of Clarence: Edward's brother, tried to marry daughter to
him. He spread rumour that Ed was not RDY1's son but the bastard of an archer.
Clarence married…

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1478: Clarence executed in Tower of London after being attainted
1482: Gloucester invades Scotland successfully
1483: Edward IV dies after a short illness
Battle of Barnet 1471:
Edward returned from exile in Burgundy with a few ships and about 1000 men. His
return caught Warwick unawares and Marge of Anjou's…

Page 8

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Used regional magnates ­ people he trusted in charge of different regions all around
the country

Advantages:
People he trusts all over country ­ family members (symbol of crown)
Less stress for him
No more rebellions during his reign
Disadvantages:
Could create overmighty nobles ­ could rebel
Dependant of personal…

Page 9

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War with France ­ reclaim land/title of French King/unite nobles
Security ­ avoid invasion, financial gain
Papal relations
Encourage and facilitate trade
Gain glory & prestige

Aims What he did Results
France Louis had given Invaded France. Treat of Louis pain Ed £10,000 annually
shelter to Lanc Exiles. Picquigny. Louis…

Page 10

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Benevolences ­ loan with no repayments ­ if not paid, would lose King's favour.

The French Pension: Edward negotiation a pension from Louis XI in 1475 to pay for
the English to go away! £85,000 in last 7 years of Ed's reign (Treaty of Picquigny).

Richard III ­ hero or…

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