UNIT 1: The Wars of the Roses and Henry VII

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Preview of UNIT 1: The Wars of the Roses and Henry VII

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The Origins of Conflict 1455
Henry VI ­ Role in starting the conflict
Issue Consequences
Claim to throne Had rival claim to throne from
Descendant of 3rd son of Edward Richard Duke of York
III, whereas RDY1 was 2nd son. Could be thrown off
Foreign Policy English could be expelled from
By 1453, Gov. on losing end of France ­ only Calais left
conflict in France Lost lands gained in 100 year war
Wanted peace ­ gave lands back ­ unpopular with public
(Normandy, Maine, Bordeaux)
Marriage People disliked her ­ thought she
Married to Margaret of Anjou ­ was a spy
Maine handed back Rumours her son wasn't Henry's
Symbol of peace policy with F
Personality Protector/regent appointed
Shadowy, meek, pious York given limited power
No military/political skills Power struggle between Marge &
Suffered catatonic schizophrenia York
Financial Problems Could no longer afford to pay
Spent money on house, gowns, armies
hats, patronage Crown virtually bankrupt
Royal revenue dropped by 2/3s Couldn't reward or repay nobles
By 1450, £372,000 in debt
Owed money to nobles
Management of Nobility Powerful men annoyed because of
Easily dominated by favourites exclusion
Created rival factions ­ failed to Unable to control feuding families
keep all on side (Bonvilles Vs Courteneys) (Percies
Removed York ­ replaced with Vs Nevilles)
Cade's rebellion 1450
Causes: fear of reprisals, high taxes, dislike of regime, military disasters
Demands: greater political equity, bring to justice of Gloucester's murderers, inquiry into
losses of French land
What happened
Started in Kent, rebels took charge of London while King fled. Lord Saye and William
Crowner were lynched by mob.
Consequences for RDY1:
Enormous public support ­ Rich Neville supported him now/people's champ

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Admitted onto council
Suspended sentence of attainder
Rallied army from support ­ became strong leader
Consequences for Henry & Marge
Shown how easy it was to take over London
Lost support ­ stress could have led to catatonic schizophrenia
Believed it was set up by Rich ­ became aggressive towards him
How did Cade's rebellion contribute to W of the R's?
Richard's return and own rebellion caused him to have suspended sentence of
Rich gain more support, confidence, momentum ­ Henry's weaknesses exposed
­…read more

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York became protector to restore law and order
Exposed Henry's weaknesses ­ lack of control over nobles
Conflict between York & Lancs gave nobles opportunity to take sides
Armies at disposal because of bastard feudalism
The Yorkist Challenge 14551461
1453: Henry VI suffers mental collapse
1455: First Battle of St.…read more

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In late 1460, York marched to London and placed hand on throne ­ there was silence ­
lack of support (going against God).
Act of Accord (Oct 1460)
Richard tried to take throne. A of A was a compromise ­ Henry remains King until he
dies, then York & sons become new heirs. Marge exiled, Yorks gained momentum.
Marge had no option but to fight for sons.
Death of the Duke of York 1460
Marge had recruiting large army, supported by northern magnates.…read more

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Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville
Warwick had been negotiating a bride with the French
EW was not of aristocratic rank
Widow of Lancastrian knight ­ strong connections
She was keen to build up power of her family
Had 14 siblings ­ married off to rich & wealthy aristocracy
Dilute royal blood line
Wasn't a virgin
The Renewed Lancastrian Challenge to Edward IV (14691471)
14615: Edward IV's campaigns to crush Lanc opposition
1465: Henry VI captured by Edward IV ­ put in tower
1469: Warwick &…read more

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Warwick's rift with Ed deepened.
France became an enemy
Warwick's personal alliance with Louis strengthened
How did Warwick rebel?
Alliance with George Duke of Clarence: Edward's brother, tried to marry daughter to
him. He spread rumour that Ed was not RDY1's son but the bastard of an archer.
Clarence married Warwick's daughter, without Ed's permission.…read more

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Clarence executed in Tower of London after being attainted
1482: Gloucester invades Scotland successfully
1483: Edward IV dies after a short illness
Battle of Barnet 1471:
Edward returned from exile in Burgundy with a few ships and about 1000 men. His
return caught Warwick unawares and Marge of Anjou's forces had not yet arrived from
France. Edward entered London and regained control of Henry VI. He met Warwick's
forces at Barnet, where W was defeated and killed.…read more

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Used regional magnates ­ people he trusted in charge of different regions all around
the country
People he trusts all over country ­ family members (symbol of crown)
Less stress for him
No more rebellions during his reign
Could create overmighty nobles ­ could rebel
Dependant of personal loyalty to Edward
Potential rivalry between magnates eg.…read more

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War with France ­ reclaim land/title of French King/unite nobles
Security ­ avoid invasion, financial gain
Papal relations
Encourage and facilitate trade
Gain glory & prestige
Aims What he did Results
France Louis had given Invaded France. Treat of Louis pain Ed £10,000 annually
shelter to Lanc Exiles. Picquigny. Louis & Ed for life. Ed's daughter to marry
Regain land. Would signed 7 yr. truce. No Dauphin. Merchants don't have
bring active support. more support for to pay tax.
Burgund Ally against France.…read more

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Benevolences ­ loan with no repayments ­ if not paid, would lose King's favour.
The French Pension: Edward negotiation a pension from Louis XI in 1475 to pay for
the English to go away! £85,000 in last 7 years of Ed's reign (Treaty of Picquigny).
Richard III ­ hero or monster
Hero: victim of smear campaign, reforms to law, strong support, champ of the poor
Villain: usurped throne, put children in tower ­ murdered them?, executed Hastings
without trial outside council chamber.…read more


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