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Restless Earth

The Earth's structure
In order of the most outer layer: Crust, Upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core, inner core.

Lithosphere ­ Upper mantle, continental crust and oceanic crust
(*1) Asthenosphere ­ Upper mantle

Fact file
Layer Physical State Composition Thickness Temperature
Oceanic Crust Solid Basalt, diabase,…

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Volcano type: SHIELD
Other Hazards: NONE
Examples: mid-Atlantic ridge (Iceland 2010 volcano) ­ Euroasian plate separating from the North American plate

Destructive Plate is where an oceanic plate gets subducted underneath continental plate. Oceanic crust is denser
so it is forced underneath the continental crust. As it gets to…

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Composite Volcanoes
Features: COMPOSE OF ALTERNATING LAYERS OF LAVA AND ASH (other volcanoes just consist of lava)
Type of eruption:
STEEP SIDED (as flow is thick so cannot flow very far),
VIOLENT ERUPTIONS (due to rapidly hardening rock blocks vent while pressure build up),

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We cannot predict an exact date or time for an eruption or an earthquake to occur, however we can predict
there is going to be an eruption even if we don't know when.

Tiltmeters - detects movement in the ground
Infrared pictures to detect changes of temperature in the ground…

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Case Studies
Undeveloped Countr(ies): Indian Ocean Earthquake

Occurred on a destructive plate boundary caused by the subduction of Australian Plate beneath the Euroasian
plate. Happened 00:58 UTC. Earthquake of magnitude 9.0 was felt in: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Thailand,
Singapore, and more. Happened in Indian Ocean, which meant that tsunamis fallowed.…

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