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Non-experimental:
Operationalise: making a
· observational techniques ­ watch
theory into something
and record people's behaviour
you can test
· self report ­ people tell you abot
themselves through interviews or
questionnaires
Experimental:
· case study ­ one person or a
· manipulating a situation to small group or studied intensely
find out how one factor
affects another factor · correlational analysis ­ 2 pieces
· other things are kept the of information are collected and
same, which are called analysed to see if there is a link
controls between them…read more

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Participant variables:
· demand characteristics
· social desirability
· cues in the environment
which help the participant
work out the hypothesis of a
study
· single-blind technique ­ don't Order effects:
let the participants know the · practice
aim · boredom
· double-blind technique ­ · fatigue
researcher does not know the · can affect the participants'
aim performance in the next task
Practice effects:
· may develop a strategy to
improve performance
· counterbalancing ­ changing the
order of conditions/tasks…read more

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Experimental methods
Method Strengths Weaknesses
Lab ­ special environment -high level of control -can lack ecological
where variables can be - can be repeated easily validity
carefully controlled - can conclude cause and - higher chance of
effect investigator/ participant
effects
Field ­ manipulation in a -can conclude cause and -less control over
more natural environment effect extraneous variables
- higher levels of - more time consuming
ecological validity - random allocation
- reduction of participant difficult
effects
Natural ­ independent -useful where it would be -cause and effect cannot
variable is naturally unethical to manipulate be determined
occurring the independent variable - no random allocation
- high levels of ecological
validity…read more

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Experimental design
Design Strengths Weaknesses Remedy (if applicable)
Repeated -participant -order effects -counterbalancing
measures ­ one variables -demand -single-blind technique
group, 2 eliminated characteristics
conditions -uses fewer
participants
Independent -no order effects -participant -random allocation
groups ­ 2 -reduced demand variables
groups, 2 characteristics
conditions
Matched pairs -no order effects -difficult to match
-control participants
participant
variables…read more

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Hypotheses
Aim ­ a general statement about the purpose of an
investigation
Hypothesis ­ a precise statement about the expected outcome of
the experiment
-Null hypothesis ­ no difference/no effect
- Directional hypothesis ­ stating there will be a difference and how
- Non-directional hypothesis ­ stating there will a difference of
some sort…read more

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