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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Models of Memory

Short Term memory information

Key Points Encoding Duration Capacity
Who studied this Conrad Peterson and Miller (1956)
aspect of memory Peterson
What did they find Things that sound Peterson and The capacity of the
out about their acoustically similar Peterson concluded short term memory
aspect?…

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term memory store and displaces it. Information that is lost through displacement is lost on the
first-in-first-out principle.




The Primary and Recency effect suggests that you are able to remember items at the start of a list
better because you have a chance to rehearse them and you are able…

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An advantage of the multi-store model is that it A problem with the research into the multi-store
is well supported by research. For example the model is that it is artificial; this means that the
primary and recency effect plus the case studies research lacks ecological validity. Therefore
from brain…

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Baddeley (1987) found that in immediate recall people find it easier to recall words that are
completely different and unrelated to each other. Adding to the model to explain why some patients
with amnesia can remember passages from a book when tested fairly immediately despite having no
long term memory…

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Memory in Everyday life
Research into EWT (eye witness testimony)

Brewer and Treyens (1981)

Main Procedure
Individual participants were asked to wait in an office. The experimenter said that this was his office
and that they should wait there whilst he checked the laboratory to see if the previous participant…

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Loftus & Palmer (keep in mind Loftus done another piece of research into EWT of Weapon
focus)

Main Procedure
45 students were shown 7 films of different traffic accidents. After each film the participants were
given a questionnaire which asked them to describe the accident then answer a series of…

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Anastasi and Rhodes (2006)

Loftus (weapon focus)



Different memory strategies
The linking system

In the Link System, positional ordering is achieved by associating the things-to-be-remembered with
each other. They are simply chained, starting with the first item, which is associated with the second,
the second with the third, etc. The…

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The loci system

The Loci system uses locations as memory aids. This technique
involves associating items that you have to remember with places that are well known to you such as
your house, neighbourhood, or parts of your body.
Suppose, there is a good-bye party for a colleague and you…

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POSITIVE EVALUATION NEGATIVE EVALUATION
There is research that shows that the A problem with the cognitive interview
cognitive interview is more effective is that it is very time consuming having to
than the standard or normal interview. go through all four instructions. Police
Holiday (2003) showed two groups of officers…

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DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
Attachments;
Bowlby's evolutionary explanation to attachment,
John Bowlby (1969) proposed that attachment was important for survival. Infants are psychologically
helpless and need adults to feed, care for and protect them; they cannot survive without such
assistance. Three important features are that infants and carers are "programmed" to become…

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