Unit 1 Psychology AS Summary (AQA)

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Models of Memory
Short Term memory information
Key Points Encoding Duration Capacity
Who studied this Conrad Peterson and Miller (1956)
aspect of memory Peterson
What did they find Things that sound Peterson and The capacity of the
out about their acoustically similar Peterson concluded short term memory
aspect? are harder to recall that participants is 7+- 2 items or
than things that could recall 80% chunks of
don't sound the after 3 second information.
same. intervals. The longer
the time gap the less
the participants
could recall. It
dropped to 10%.
Long Term memory information
Key Points Encoding Duration Capacity
Who studied this Baddeley Bahrick et al n/a
aspect of memory
What did they find Semantic encoding is Recognition is better UNLIMITED
out about their primarily used for than recall
aspect? Long Term memory
1. Multi-store Model
Theory bought forward by Atkinson and Shriffin (1968.) they suggested that memory consists of only
3 stages. It consists of short term memory (STM) Long term memory (LTM) and the sensory memory.
They said that information has to pass through Sensory memory then through STM and then to LTM.
Information could be lost at any point.
According to this model information is initially stored for a fraction of a second at the sensory organs
in sensory memory (also called the sensory register). Information that is attended to whilst in
sensory memory is transferred to short term memory. Short term memory has a limited capacity and
duration. Information that is rehearsed in short term memory is then transferred to long term
Information that is attended to is held in the short term memory for a few seconds and at this stage it
tends to be encoded phonetically (acoustically). The capacity of short term memory is small
(approximately 7 items).
Material that is rehearsed remains in the short term memory long enough for it to be transformed to
long term memory. If material is not rehearsed it is lost when new information comes into the short

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Information that is lost through displacement is lost on the
first-in-first-out principle.
The Primary and Recency effect suggests that you are able to remember items at the start of a list
better because you have a chance to rehearse them and you are able to remember items at the end
of a list (recency) because they are stored in your short term memory. This is shown in the graph
below.…read more

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An advantage of the multi-store model is that it A problem with the research into the multi-store
is well supported by research. For example the model is that it is artificial; this means that the
primary and recency effect plus the case studies research lacks ecological validity. Therefore
from brain damaged patients suggest that this these findings cannot be used to generalise
model is sound. Therefore it can be argued that situations outside of the lab settings.…read more

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Baddeley (1987) found that in immediate recall people find it easier to recall words that are
completely different and unrelated to each other. Adding to the model to explain why some patients
with amnesia can remember passages from a book when tested fairly immediately despite having no
long term memory recall.
Visuo-Spatial Sketch pad:
This is when people are able to visualise the spatial relationship between objects even when the
objects were in motion. Top sportsmen rely on efficient Visuo-Spatial processing in working memory.…read more

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Memory in Everyday life
Research into EWT (eye witness testimony)
Brewer and Treyens (1981)
Main Procedure
Individual participants were asked to wait in an office. The experimenter said that this was his office
and that they should wait there whilst he checked the laboratory to see if the previous participant
had finished. After 35 seconds, he returned and took the participant to another room where they
were asked to recall everything in the room in which they had been waiting.…read more

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Loftus & Palmer (keep in mind Loftus done another piece of research into EWT of Weapon
Main Procedure
45 students were shown 7 films of different traffic accidents. After each film the participants were
given a questionnaire which asked them to describe the accident then answer a series of questions.
There was 1 critical question which was the main focus of the study. "Hit or Smashed." Some students
were given the questions with hit and some with smashed.…read more

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Anastasi and Rhodes (2006)
Loftus (weapon focus)
Different memory strategies
The linking system
In the Link System, positional ordering is achieved by associating the things-to-be-remembered with
each other. They are simply chained, starting with the first item, which is associated with the second,
the second with the third, etc. The very first item can be associated with the goal or the reason for
the list that must be remembered.
A good application of this technique is a short list of things to do.…read more

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The loci system
The Loci system uses locations as memory aids. This technique
involves associating items that you have to remember with places that are well known to you such as
your house, neighbourhood, or parts of your body.
Suppose, there is a good-bye party for a colleague and you have been asked to say a few words.
You want to include at least the following points.…read more

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There is research that shows that the A problem with the cognitive interview
cognitive interview is more effective is that it is very time consuming having to
than the standard or normal interview. go through all four instructions. Police
Holiday (2003) showed two groups of officers suggest that this technique
children aged 4-5 and 9-10, a five requires more time than is often
minute video of a child's birthday party.…read more

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Bowlby's evolutionary explanation to attachment,
John Bowlby (1969) proposed that attachment was important for survival. Infants are psychologically
helpless and need adults to feed, care for and protect them; they cannot survive without such
assistance. Three important features are that infants and carers are "programmed" to become
attached to each other. As attachment is a biological process it takes place during the critical period
of development or not at all.…read more


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