unit 1 psychology

gender development psychology

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  • Created on: 07-05-11 13:17
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Hormones &
Oedipus & Electra
Biological Psychodynamic
Social Learning
Identification developmental
Reinforcement theory
Imitation &
Modelling Gender Schema
Gender Development 5/7/2011 1

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Biological Explanation.
States any difference in gender is due to differences in hormonal activity.
Bio psychologists seek to explain gender differences in terms of chromosomal
difference, difference in hormonal activity and difference in the structure
and function of the brain.
Chromosomal differences.
Typical chromosome: A Atypical chromosome:
normal body has 23 pairs anything other than XX
of chromosomes and each and Xy is known as
pair controls different atypical and it may
characteristics.…read more

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Klinefelter's Turner's
Syndrome Syndrome
(XXy) (XO)
Gender Development 5/7/2011 3…read more

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Hormonal Influences:
Chemical substances secreted by the glands.
Men and women have the SAME chromosomes but in different
Testosterone. is a predominately male Oestrogen: is a female hormone it is
hormone. Affects behaviour and responsible for developing female sexual
development before and after birth. In the characteristics and menstruation. As well
5th month of foetus development it is as physical changes which occur due to
secreted into the glands to help in the this some psychological and behavioural
development of external organs.…read more

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Evaluation 5
There is evidence to support that biological differences between
males & females affect behaviour
Even if biology has a role, it is also important to consider
environmental affects.
Most studies do not allow us to infer cause and effect. Maybe
differences in the brain structure & hormones are a result of being
male/female rather than a cause of being masculine/feminine.
Biological explanations can not explain individual differences in
gender-related behaviour.…read more

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Social Learning Theory (SLT)
According to Bandura 1986. most complex behaviours are learnt as
result of observation & imitation. The following four stages have
been told:
1. Imitation: There is no relationship between imitator and imitated.
Simple observation can be sufficient to take place.
2. Reinforcement: if a child performs a good behaviour and gets a
reward for doing so he or she will mostly likely repeat the
behaviour>> +ve. If a child sees someone else being rewarded for
their behaviours the child will copy>>vicarious.…read more

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Cognitive Factors
These factors affect
Similarity>>Perry & Bussey the probability of a
Status child imitating or
copying the
Attractiveness behavior of a model.…read more

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Ignores the importance of genes and chromosomes in determining 8
gender behaviour (nature).
Fails to explain how gender appropriate schemas develop in the 1st
Does not account for why same sex siblings display different behaviours
even though they live in the same household. E.G. out of two brothers:
one brother could be caring and the other could be rough.
Studies show that boys and girls are reinforced differently.
Cross-cultural studies e.g. Mead show that gender is socially constructed.…read more

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Cognitive approach.
This tries to explain gender from the point of view of how the
child understands gender; rather than the source of gender
identity. It was first told by Kohlberg 1966.
The following three stages are recognised.
Gender Identity Gender Stability
2-3yrs Gender Constancy
3-4 yrs
The child doesn't understand 4-7 yrs
child still doesn't understands
gender stays constant through gender stays the same child realises gender stays
all times and situations. Rely on throughout situations.…read more

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Evaluation 10
There is cross-cultural support for Kohlberg's 3 stages to gender
development>>Munroe et al 1984
Kohlberg's theory describes the sequence of gender
development but does not explain the cause of gender
Another cognitive approach Gender Schema theory says that
a child identifies their sex sooner than Kohlberg said & actively
tries to construct an understanding of their own gender and
others around them sooner than Kohlberg said.…read more


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