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Hormones &
Oedipus & Electra

Biological Psychodynamic

Social Learning

Identification developmental
Reinforcement theory
Imitation &
Modelling Gender Schema
Gender Development 5/7/2011 1

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Biological Explanation.
States any difference in gender is due to differences in hormonal activity.
Bio psychologists seek to explain gender differences in terms of chromosomal
difference, difference in hormonal activity and difference in the structure
and function of the brain.
Chromosomal differences.

Typical chromosome: A Atypical chromosome:
normal body has…

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Klinefelter's Turner's
Syndrome Syndrome
(XXy) (XO)

Gender Development 5/7/2011 3

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Hormonal Influences:
Chemical substances secreted by the glands.
Men and women have the SAME chromosomes but in different

Testosterone. is a predominately male Oestrogen: is a female hormone it is
hormone. Affects behaviour and responsible for developing female sexual
development before and after birth. In the characteristics and menstruation.…

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Evaluation 5
There is evidence to support that biological differences between
males & females affect behaviour
Even if biology has a role, it is also important to consider
environmental affects.
Most studies do not allow us to infer cause and effect. Maybe
differences in the brain structure & hormones are…

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Social Learning Theory (SLT)
According to Bandura 1986. most complex behaviours are learnt as
result of observation & imitation. The following four stages have
been told:
1. Imitation: There is no relationship between imitator and imitated.
Simple observation can be sufficient to take place.
2. Reinforcement: if a child performs…

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Cognitive Factors

These factors affect
Similarity>>Perry & Bussey the probability of a
Status child imitating or
copying the
Attractiveness behavior of a model.

Behaviour is appropriate

Reward & Punishment

Gender Development 5/7/2011 7

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Ignores the importance of genes and chromosomes in determining 8
gender behaviour (nature).
Fails to explain how gender appropriate schemas develop in the 1st
Does not account for why same sex siblings display different behaviours
even though they live in the same household. E.G. out of two…

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Cognitive approach.
This tries to explain gender from the point of view of how the
child understands gender; rather than the source of gender
identity. It was first told by Kohlberg 1966.
The following three stages are recognised.

Gender Identity Gender Stability
2-3yrs Gender Constancy
3-4 yrs
The child doesn't…

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Evaluation 10

There is cross-cultural support for Kohlberg's 3 stages to gender
development>>Munroe et al 1984
Kohlberg's theory describes the sequence of gender
development but does not explain the cause of gender
Another cognitive approach Gender Schema theory says that
a child identifies their sex sooner than Kohlberg said…


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