Unit 1 - Developmental Psychology

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Learning Theory Evolutionary Theory Secure+Insecure Ainsworth Studies Cultural
Attachments 1. Parent + kid play. Variation-Attachment
All behaviour is learned. 1. Adaptive ­ attachments are 2. Parent sits, infant plays. Individualistic: independence +
Classical conditioning adaptive, make us more likely to Secure Attachment 3. Stranger enters + talks to parent. more anti-social behaviour.
Food produces pleasure. `Feeder' survive. -Positive outcomes 4. Parent leaves. Western countries+America.
also produces pleasure. 2 Social Releasers ­ babies have -Higher achievement 5.Parent returns, stranger leaves Collectivist: group, sharing,
Operant Conditioning social releasers which unlock the 6. Parent leaves, infant is alone. interdependence, less anti-social
7. Stranger enters, offers comfort.
Food = primary reinforcer innate tendencies of adults to care Resistant Attachment behaviour. Japan+Israel.
Feeder = secondary reinforcer. for them. 8. Parent returns, offers comfort.
-Greater anxiety
3. Critical Period ­ Babies have to -Withdrawn behaviour Cross Cultural Similarities
Both reduce discomfort and are form the attachments with their Secure Attachment -Ainsworth compared results from
very rewarding. caregiver during critical period.
Avoidant Attachment
-Mother leaves=distressed, UK + USA.
Birth-2+half years. avoidant of the stranger. -Different cultures + societies.
-Later aggressiveness
Evaluation: 4. Monotropy ­ Bowlby believed -Mother returns=positive+happy -Found similar results
-Negative effect
We learn through conditioning
that infants form one special -Regardless of culture, depends on
attachment called Monotropy. If Insecure Resistant attachment.
Gives an idea of how mother is not available, the infant Disorganised Attachment
-Mother leaves=intense signs of -Tronick et al
attachments are formed. would bond with another present -Hostile
distress, avoids stranger and shows -African tribe, people raise their
Food is less important than adult. -Aggressive behaviour
fear of stranger. children in a very different way due
contact comfort ­ 5. Internal Working Model ­ -Mother returns=child approaches to culture BUT infant still attaches
Schaffer+Emerson found Special mental schema for Hazan and Shaver ­ love quiz in the but resists contact/pushes her to mother.
infants are not necessarily relationships. All the child's future newspaper. Found patterns that away. -Culture + raising methods do not
attached to adult who fed adult relationships will be based on later romantic life is associated
matter, it's innate.
them. this. with early like and so supports -Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
Insecure Avoidant
Harlow-we don't learn just Bowlby's theory. -Meta-analysis
-Mother leaves=no signs of
through food. Also need Evaluation: distress, plays with the stranger. -Found differences with/within
contact comfort. Very influential, has been -Secure = positive relationships, Mother returns=little interest, cultures.
applied in practical situations. trust other and believe in love. mother/stranger comfort equally. -Most common = securely
Neglects father, Lamb (1983) attached.
suggests that children prefer Insecure Resistant=Preoccupied Evaluation:
the rough, tumble play they get by love and fall in love easily. Have Easy to replicate Cross Cultural Differences
with their father. trouble finding true love. -Grossman + Grossman
Reliable ­ found same results
Doesn't acknowledge sibling Ethics-child's stressed
-Relationship between parent and
relationships. Schaffer (1996) -Insecure Avoidant=fearful of child determine on attachment
describes these as horizontal closeness, love is not lasting. Lacks validity-unfamiliar formed.
surrounding -If parent distances itself from child,
relationships as opposed to
vertical relationships with Evaluation: Oversimplification-children no bonding + insecurely attached.
adults and parents. being separated into 3 groups. -Takahashi
Self selecting sample -Attachments not innate, depends
A poor start can be overcome Questionnaire on raising methods.
by positive experience at
school + good adult
Not reliable - retrospective
Evaluation of Cultural Variations

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Rutter and Media influence
Quinton) Culture bias
Different for different countries
Disruptions Of Attachment Failure To Form Effects Of Impact of Day-care Effects On Aggression +
- Deprivation Attachments-Privation Institutionalisation Peer Relations
Day-care: Care for children under
Short-Term Effects: Isolated children: -Hodges and Tizard school age, generally at a nursery NICHD ­ 1000 children assessed
Protest ­ cries, screams when -Followed 65 children from early or by a child minder. over time.…read more

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Can't be sure that the kids did
not form attachments.
Institutional care has changed.…read more


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