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Structure of starch and why it is suitable as a storage molecule..

1. Starch is made up of amylose (20-30%) and amylopectin (70-80%)
2. Amylose is a straight chain with no double bonds and has 1-4 glycosidic links
3. Amylopectin has branches and is made up of 1-4…

Page 2

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Reduces production of angiotensin II. The Dizziness
angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction. The Kidney failure
enzyme prevents the hormone being
produced and reduces Blood Pressure.
Diuretics Increases volume of urine produced and rids Dizziness
body of excess fluids and salts Nausea
This decreases cardiac output. Muscle cramps
ACE inhibitors and diuretics…

Page 3

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Semilunar valves:

Location: base of aorta

Function: prevents backflow of blood into ventricles during diastole and atrial systole.

Elastic fibres:

Location: middle layer of wall of vessels (tunica media)

Function: allows stretch and recoil and prevent damage of the aorta by maintaining blood pressure

Atrio-ventricular valves (bicuspid and tricuspid)


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5. This converts fibrinogen into fibrin
6. The strands of fibrin form a tangles mesh as they are insoluble
7. With the presence of calcium ions and vitamin K
8. Platelets become trapped in this tangles mesh


1. Damage to artery wall (e.g. toxins inhaled by cigarette smoke)

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Topic 2
Why risk of CF is not zero when neither are carriers

Mutations may occur during production of gametes
False negatives may occur
Screening does not test all possible mutations
Mutations may occur after fertilisation

Phospholipid bilayer explained

1. Fatty acid tails are hydrophobic
2. They orientate themselves away…

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4. ATP energy is used in this process

Facilitated diffusion

1. Channel proteins are used
2. Channels can open or close
3. Large/ polar/ charged molecules can pass through membrane in this way
4. Molecules move down the concentration gradient

How do phospholipids contribute to the structure of a cell…

Page 7

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How is gene therapy carried out?

1. A normal allele is used
2. haemoglobin chain
3. The gene is introduced onto the DNA
4. Cells in the bone marrow are treated
5. Vectors are used as the mode of transport
6. E.g. liposome or virus
7. The…

Page 8

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Abortion is wrong

An abnormality may be found
This could result in a problem with future employment

Not fully understanding risks of testing
Accidental miscarriage

Who has the right to make the decision for the foetus
No-one has the right to choose f they will live or die.

How is…

Page 9

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Importance of primary structure of an enzyme in relation to its function

1. Primary structure determines an enzyme's 3D folding
2. The types of amino acids determine types of bonds and interactions
3. Position of amino acids determines position of bonds
4. Shape of an active site is determined by…

Page 10

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Core practical- Vitamin C content in fruit juices

1. DCPIP is used
2. Juices are used
3. Colour changes from blue to colourless or pink
4. Procedure would need to be repeated at regular time intervals
5. Control variable mentioned- e.g. temperature of juice/ volume of DCPIP
6. Draw graphn…


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