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Psychological Investigation (Unit G541)
Methods of Sampling
Method Description Advantages Disadvantages
Random Every member of the Highly representative. Some people may choose
population has an equal not to participate.
chance of being
Opportunity Selecting people that Quick and convenient. Subjectivity.
happen to be around at
that time.
SelfSelecting Advertise the General consent One type of individual
investigation asking for given. may offer only.
volunteers. Quick and easy.
A graph showing positive A graph showing no A graph showing negative
correlation... correlation... correlation...
There is a link. As one variable There is no link between the two There is no link. As one variable
increases, so does the other. covariables. increases, the other decreases.
Method Advantages Disadvantages

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Psychological Investigation (Unit G541)
Correlation It is easy to see a link once Cause and effect cannot be
the results have been plotted on established.
a scattergraph. Therefore confounding
There is no manipulation. variables may have played a
Experimental Methods
Method Description Advantages Disadvantages
Laboratory Manipulate IV & DV. Easy to replicate Lacks ecological
Operationalised Can establish cause and validity
Controlled. effect High in demand
Field Manipulate IV & DV. Reduces demand Could be unaware
Participants own characteristics they are taking part
environment.…read more

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Psychological Investigation (Unit G541)
Design Description Advantages Disadvantages
Repeated Measures Using the same No individual Demand
participants for the control, differences Characteristics
and experimental More economical Order effects
Independent Groups Using different participants Demand Individual
in the control, and Characteristics Differences
experimental conditions. No Order effects Less economical
Matched Pairs Using participants that are No Individual Time consuming
matched on every variable differences Participant variables
except the IV. Demand
The Observation
Structured When the observer takes part.…read more

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Psychological Investigation (Unit G541)
Disadvantage May be able to guess Can't establish cause Lacks objectivity.
s cues. and effect.
Type of NonParticipant Covert Observation... Overt Observation...
Observation Observation...
Advantages Some ecological High in ecological Some ecological validity.
validity validity
Disadvantage Demand Ethical Issues Consent, Demand Characteristics
s Characteristics and confidentiality.
The SelfReport.
Method Advantages Disadvantages
Questionnaire Closed questions are quantitative Closed questions only give Yes/No,
data, and are easy to evaluate and detail is lost.
numerically.…read more

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Psychological Investigation (Unit G541)
Reliability Method Description
Internal Splithalf Taking half the test, and testing it against the other half to see if all
questions are as consistent as each other. (All as easy/hard as each
Internal InterObserver When all the observers decide together on a standardised scoring
Reliability system for the behaviours being observed.
External TestRetest Correlating the answers of one test to the answers of the same test
repeated (eg.) one year later.…read more


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