unit 4d - nuclear proliferation

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Nature of nuclear weapons
The first and only nuclear weapons were developed by the Manhattan
Project, and caused devastation in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima
and Nagasaki in August 1945.
The massive destruction capacity of nuclear weapons means that they
have affected the international and domestic political community in a
way that no other weapon has ever done.
They are distinguished from conventional weapons in three main
Create massive collateral damage, having devastating
implications for civilian populations.

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Powerful deterrent effect, making attacks on states with
WMD unthinkable.
Raised moral questions, as they are seen as an inhuman
form of warfare.
Classification of Nuclear Weapons
The WMD each have different effects with Chemical and Biological
Weapons (CBW) being small scale and more usable than nuclear
weapons and Atomic, Biological and Chemical Weapons (ABC) being
on a larger scale
Proliferation during the Cold War
Proliferation refers to the spread of nuclear weapons.…read more

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France, U.K., Russia, USA and China are
considered to be the nuclear five.
During the cold war, nuclear proliferation was seen to be vertical
rather than horizontal. The greatest attention was then brought
upon the nuclear five to restrict the spread of nuclear weapons arms
and extended in 1995.
Almost all states signed the treaty except India and Pakistan
and Israel.…read more

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Idea of the balance of power Critical of the idea of the idea of
has played role in realist the balance of power.
theory. Waltz's theory
Classic realists view the In this view, balance power
balance of power as a legitimises and entrenches
product of political power politics and international
intervention. rivalry, creating instability.…read more

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The end of the Cold War provided optimism that nuclear
proliferation would certainly decline.
Such expectations were fuelled by the Strategic Arms
Reduction Treaty (START 1, 1991) and by START 2 in 1993,
the USA AND RUSSIA agreed for the first time to reduce the
number of nuclear warheads and to eliminate certain
categories of weapons such as landbased intercontinental
ballistic missiles with multiple warheads.…read more

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The 2002 Strategic Offensive Reduction Treaty (SORT)
amounted to little more than a `gentleman's agreement'. It
contained no verification measures, allowed the USA and
Russia to deploy between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads,
with the rest put in storage rather than destroyed.
There is growing evidence that established nuclear powers
were keen to develop a new generation of weapons.…read more

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South Asia in the
In 1998, both India and Pakistan tested nuclear devices and
joined the `nuclear club' responding to bitter rivalry over
Kashmir and the USA's scaling support for Pakistan an
India's loss of backing by the Soviet Union.
Thirdly, acquiring nuclear weapons is much easier now than it
was during the Cold War. During the first `nuclear age' only a
specific number of states had reached the technological
threshold that made the development of nuclear weapons
possible.…read more

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Changes to Proliferation
However, a number of states with economic and
technological advancements to produce nuclear weapons
have demonstrated a consistent determination not to do so.
ustralia, Canada, Japan and Germany.
These include: A
Further collections of states have voluntarily abandoned
nuclear programmes such as Brazil and South Africa.
The Ukraine and Belarus each inherited nuclear
weapons after the breakup of the Soviet Union, but
returned them to Russia in favour of USA economic
aid e.g. the Marshall plan.…read more

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The Nuclear Proliferation treaty made a contribution to
slowing the pace of horizontal proliferation, especially
amongst economically and technologically developed states.
Difficulties of Arms Control
Realists argue that security regime is a stubborn
problem meaning that security regimes to break up
arms control are always unavoidable.…read more

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Purpose of nuclear strategy is to minimise harm to
innocent civilians.
Should work to reduce the risks of war in the near term
Work to r
educe the reliance of nuclear weapons
in the longterm
A world free of Nuclear weapons?
The idea of a postnuclear world has long been advanced by
the peace movement, for whom antinuclear activism.…read more


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