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Nuclear
PROLIFERATIO
N AND
Disarmament
Nature of nuclear weapons

The first and only nuclear weapons were developed by the Manhattan
Project, and caused devastation in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima
and Nagasaki in August 1945.

The massive destruction capacity of nuclear weapons means that they
have affected the international and…

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Powerful deterrent effect, making attacks on states with
WMD unthinkable.
Raised moral questions, as they are seen as an inhuman
form of warfare.


Classification of Nuclear Weapons

The WMD each have different effects with Chemical and Biological
Weapons (CBW) being small scale and more usable than nuclear
weapons and Atomic,…

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first order. France, U.K., Russia, USA and China are
considered to be the nuclear five.
During the cold war, nuclear proliferation was seen to be vertical
rather than horizontal. The greatest attention was then brought
upon the nuclear five to restrict the spread of nuclear weapons arms
through the NUCLEAR…

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Idea of the balance of power Critical of the idea of the idea of
has played role in realist the balance of power.
theory. Waltz's theory

Classic realists view the In this view, balance power
balance of power as a legitimises and entrenches
product of political power politics and international…

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The end of the Cold War provided optimism that nuclear
proliferation would certainly decline.
Such expectations were fuelled by the Strategic Arms
Reduction Treaty (START 1, 1991) and by START 2 in 1993,
the USA AND RUSSIA agreed for the first time to reduce the
number of nuclear warheads and…

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The 2002 Strategic Offensive Reduction Treaty (SORT)
amounted to little more than a `gentleman's agreement'. It
contained no verification measures, allowed the USA and
Russia to deploy between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads,
with the rest put in storage rather than destroyed.

There is growing evidence that established nuclear powers
were…

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regional tensions were deepening, as in South Asia in the
1990s.
In 1998, both India and Pakistan tested nuclear devices and
joined the `nuclear club' responding to bitter rivalry over
Kashmir and the USA's scaling support for Pakistan an
India's loss of backing by the Soviet Union.

Thirdly, acquiring nuclear…

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Changes to Proliferation
However, a number of states with economic and
technological advancements to produce nuclear weapons
have demonstrated a consistent determination not to do so.
ustralia, Canada, Japan and Germany.
These include: A

Further collections of states have voluntarily abandoned
nuclear programmes such as Brazil and South Africa.
The…

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The Nuclear Proliferation treaty made a contribution to
slowing the pace of horizontal proliferation, especially
amongst economically and technologically developed states.
Difficulties of Arms Control
Realists argue that security regime is a stubborn
problem meaning that security regimes to break up
arms control are always unavoidable.
States are selfinterested so…

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Purpose of nuclear strategy is to minimise harm to
innocent civilians.
Should work to reduce the risks of war in the near term
Work to r
educe the reliance of nuclear weapons
in the longterm

A world free of Nuclear weapons?
The idea of a postnuclear world has long been…

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