Unit 4 D Revision Guide - Human Rights

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Human Rights and
Human Rights ­ Rights given to which people are entitled by virtue of
being human ­ Modern & Secular
Four types ­ Absolute, Indivisible, Fundamental and Universal
Nature and Types of Rights
Civil and Political Rights ­ RIGHT TO LIFE, FREEDOM FROM
Economic, social and Cultural Rights Work, Healthcare,
Human rights are universal, meaning that they are applicable to all
human beings regardless of race, religion or social class. Over time,
they have developed into three generations of rights; Civil and
political rights, 2. Economic, social and cultural and Solidarity rights
Negative Rights ­ Rights enjoyed by the inactivity of others ­ e.g.
Government ­ `freedoms from' e.g. discrimination and slavery
Positive RIGHTS ­ Rights enjoyed by the positive intervention on the
part of the government ­ `freedoms to' e.g. work

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Realist and Liberal Arguments
Realism Liberalism
View human rights as a Centre of western liberal
soft issue on the theory
international stage ­ hard
issues concern security and
prosperity ­ e.g. terror
Believe that it is impossible Social contract liberalists
to view international argue that central role of
politics in moral terms government is to protect
inalienable rights to life,
liberty and property.…read more

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Examples : Oxfam, Human Rights Watch and Red Cross
Registered international NGOS: 37,000 by 2000
Aim: Work directly in the field to relieve suffering but also campaign
on behalf of those they treat to promote humanitarian law
How they Operate: 1. Exert pressure by gaining media coverage, on
the high moral purpose that people customarily attach to their
activities E.g. influencing governments and TNCS over matters about
pay and working conditions in overseas factories.
2. Lobbying government delegations and experts, and the drafting of
resolutions.…read more

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Asian Critique of Human Rights
Attempts to highlight the cultural bias that is highlighted in the
universal human rights is prominent in the Asian World.
Asian values emphasize on social harmony and respect for authority
and a belief in family.
These challenge human rights as they favour the community than
individual and duties rather than rights.
Asian values are closely tied with economic and social development
than democracy, e.g.…read more

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Humanitarian Intervention
1978 ­ Vietnamese forces invaded in Cambodia to overthrow Khmer
Rhouge regime, which had caused deaths to 3 million people due to
famine, civil war and executions.
Vietnam justified its intervention as a national interest and solely to
restore regional stability
Humanitarian Intervention and the `new world order'
1990s seen as golden age of humanitarian intervention. Examples
include: Somalia (1992), Haiti (1994), Rwanda (1994) Kosovo (1999).…read more

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Social backwardness
Factors why governments intervened in the 1990s
1. Self Interest ­ Realists argue that motives for humanitarian
intervention are mixed and complex, e.g. Haiti in 1994 US
intervention was motivated by the desire to stem the flow of
Haitian refugees to the USA. Secondly Kosovo 1999 NATO
intervened by a wish to avoid a refugee crisis and also prevent
regional instability.
2. Media due to 24/7 news coverage, governments came under
pressure to act in the event of humanitarian crises and
emergencies.…read more

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Rwanda and Bosnia, served as a stain to the international
Since then, there has been the perception that there has been too
many humanitarian interventions, notably the USA led ones in Iraq
and Afghanistan.
The Afghan and Iraq war were not examples of humanitarian
interventions as they were justified on the grounds of selfdefence, to
prevent `future 9/11s' that `future Rwandas'.…read more

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Such problems such as deepening the tensions between the
Islamic world and the West and using the wars in Iraq and
Afghanistan as a windowdressing have made it difficult to
mobilise support for interventions since 2001. This is
demonstrated by noninterventions in places such as Darfur,
Zimbabwe and Syria.
Darfur, Sudan ­ since 2004, the conflict in Darfur has
eaths of at least 2
resulted to d 00,000 people and forced
more than 2.…read more


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