UNIT 2 TOPIC C EXPERIMENTS AND STUDIES

HideShow resource information
Preview of UNIT 2 TOPIC C EXPERIMENTS AND STUDIES

First 408 words of the document:

Ramirez et al (2001): culture and aggression
Wanted to investigate whether aggression varied between cultures
Also were interested in the different levels of aggression between males and
females
Procedure : 400 psychology students took part, ones who volunteered
Half the participants were from a university in Japan and half the participants
were from Spain
All students had to complete a questionnaire that measured different types of
aggression including:
Verbal aggression
Physical aggression
Anger
Hostility
Questionnaires:
Likertstyle questions (this means the participant responds by saying to what extent they agree
with a statement)
Questions covered different areas, and questions were along the lines of:
Verbal aggression ­ "I tell my friends openly when I disagree with them"
Physical aggression "once in a while, I can't control the urge to strike another person"
Anger "some of my friends think I'm a hothead"
Hostility "I sometimes feel that people are laughing at me behind my back"
Findings/Results:
Japanese students showed more physical aggression than Spanish students
Spanish students showed more verbal aggression and anger than Japanese
students
Males showed more physical and verbal aggression and hostility than females in
both cultures
Males and females in both cultures showed the same level of anger
Conclusion
Despite the cultural stereotypes of the Japanese being shy and not showing emotion, this study
found that male and female Japanese students showed more aggression physically than Spanish
students. Spanish students were more verbally aggressive this is consistent with the stereotypes of
Spaniards being expressive of their emotions
Study supports theories that males are more aggressive than females
May be because of the way they are raised as masculine or hormonal differences
between the sexes
Strengths:
Questions produced quantitative data: objective, easier to interpret
All the students were volunteers and fully aware that the results would be
published; it was an ethical study
Weaknesses:
Some questionnaires are criticized as answers can be interpreted in a way that
they reach the expectations of the researcher (researcher bias)
All participants were psychology students, meaning they could have guessed the
aim of the study or they could have answered questions in a desirable way
(social desirability)

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Students may have answered questions in a way they think they would have
reacted and not actually realistically.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

CHARLTON ET AL (2000) ST HELENA STUDY
St Helena is one of the most isolated islands in the South Atlantic Ocean
Around 2000 KM from mainland Africa, only accessible by boat
Around 5000 inhabitants, just over 1000 children of school age
Study began in 1993, two years before TV was introduced, up until present day
AIM: to investigate the effects of television on children's behavior
PROCEDURE: natural experiment; researchers didn't have to set up the
experiment themselves, introduction of television was happening naturally
IV: TV,…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

WILLIAM ET ALL (1981) DOES TV AFFECT CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOUR?
AIM: wanted to measure children's behaviour before and after television had
been introduced to the town and also to compare the children's behaviour with
that in other towns that did have TV
PROCEDURE: Natural experiment measured range of behaviours before and
after the town and received television:
Aggression of children in the playground and classroom
Leisure activities the communities were involved in
Intelligence level (IQ) of the children
Creativity and reading ability of children
Two observers…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Researcher did not control how much TV the children watched
Observations might be biased because the researchers may have seen what they
wanted to see (researcher bias)…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »