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A2 Government & Politics Liberalism

Types of Liberalism

Early Forms

Tended to refer to themselves as `radicals', `republicans' or `rationalists'
Main principle was natural rights
John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rosseau, Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson are regarded as the
champions of natural rights
Emphasis on natural rights led to political developments:…

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A2 Government & Politics Liberalism

o "I regard utility as the ultimate appeal on all ethical questions; but it must be utility in
the largest sense, grounded on the permanent interests of a man as a progressive
Bentham = self-interest + freedom in terms of consumption of goods

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A2 Government & Politics Liberalism

1. Free economic markets to extremes, proposing removal of all state
2. Growing belief that state welfare was becoming excessive
o Extreme form of liberalism
o Emerged latter part of 19th Century
o Become popular since 1980s
o Ideologically closer to liberals, they…

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A2 Government & Politics Liberalism

and fear of want, freedom from idleness and fear of idleness enforced by
unemployment, freedom from war and fear of war." ­ Why I am a Liberal (1945)
o Postwar liberals accepted welfare state
o Keynes felt able to justify extensions in state's role on…


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