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A2 Government & Politics Liberalism




Types of Liberalism



Early Forms

Tended to refer to themselves as `radicals', `republicans' or `rationalists'
Main principle was natural rights
John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rosseau, Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson are regarded as the
champions of natural rights
Emphasis on natural rights led to political developments:…

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A2 Government & Politics Liberalism


o "I regard utility as the ultimate appeal on all ethical questions; but it must be utility in
the largest sense, grounded on the permanent interests of a man as a progressive
being"
Bentham = self-interest + freedom in terms of consumption of goods
Mill…

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A2 Government & Politics Liberalism


1. Free economic markets to extremes, proposing removal of all state
restrictions
2. Growing belief that state welfare was becoming excessive
Libertarianism
o Extreme form of liberalism
o Emerged latter part of 19th Century
o Become popular since 1980s
o Ideologically closer to liberals, they…

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A2 Government & Politics Liberalism


and fear of want, freedom from idleness and fear of idleness enforced by
unemployment, freedom from war and fear of war." ­ Why I am a Liberal (1945)
o Postwar liberals accepted welfare state
o Keynes felt able to justify extensions in state's role on…

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