First 383 words of the document:
By Niki Nubi
Most commonly caused by the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via droplet The numbers of TB cases are increasing in
infection. developed countries because:
Mycobacterium bovis affects cattle. People become infected from drinking
infected milk or living in close contact with cattle. Deteriorating social conditions
Immigration and movement of refugees
TB affects the respiratory system, particularly by damaging and destroying lung
tissue. Increase in intravenous drug use
It suppresses the immune system, making the body less able to fight disease. Increasing numbers of people infected
Diagnosis: Chest X-ray can show TB damage to the lungs as opaque areas and with HIV/AIDS
large, thick-walled cavities. A sample of sputum or a skin test can also be used. Evolution of the multidrug-resistant M.
Eventually causes death. tuberculosis
Loss of appetite
Coughing up blood or sputum
More likely to be spread in crowded living or working conditions as people breathe,
cough or sneeze near to each other. Main treatment is with using different antibiotics so that even if the
Once the bacteria have been inhaled into the lungs they multiply slowly in the mycobacteria are resistant to some of the drugs there'll be others which
primary infection, often causing no obvious symptoms. will attack the slowly metabolising ones.
Vaccination with a live strain of mycobacterium.
In a healthy immune system, there will be a localised inflammatory response
Improve living standards healthier and better fed people, in less crowded
forming a mass of tissue called a tubercule containing dead bacteria and living and working spaces.
macrophages. After 8 weeks the lung tissue heals. Preventing and treating the disease in cattle, along with pasteurising milk
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can avoid the immune system, by producing a thick before it is drunk.
waxy outer layer which protects them from the macrophage enzymes. These
bacteria will remain deep in the tubercules in the lungs, dormant or growing slowly
for years until the person is malnourished, weakened or their immune system
doesn't function well. This is active tuberculosis.