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Sergai Witte
· Finance Minister 1892-1903
· Indentified 3 key problems holding back
economic development:
1. Insufficient capital
2. Lack of technical and managerial expertise
3. Insufficient manpower in the right places…read more

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Why Did Witte Promote
Industrialisation?
· He had links with the industry
· Fear that they'd fall behind the West
· Might be seen as an area for colonial
exploitation by other Great Powers
· Needs to industrialise to develop as a power
and maintain its status
· To strengthen the autocracy ­ needed to
move Russia away from being a peasant-based
agricultural society…read more

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Industrialisation ­ the facts
· 1890's ­ industrial output expanded at annual
rate of 8%
· Trans-Siberian railway: 1905 ­ 59,616km of
railway. Boosted timber, coal, iron, steel
· By 1900 ­ 2 ½ million workers in industry and
transport due to Witte
· Witte borrowed money from abroad and by
1913, 1/3 of Russian industry was foreign
owned and would have to be paid bac…read more

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Problems of a Rural Economy
· Insufficient farming methods ­ crop rotation,
wooden ploughs, lack of husbandry
· Population doubled in the second half of the 19th
century, putting a strain on yield
· Gaps between richest and poorest peasants
became wider
· Pressure on resources from growing population ­
minority migrated to Siberia
· Mortality rates higher than any other European
country…read more

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Growth of Opposition
· The assassination had no practical benefits ­ it
led to a wave of arrests and greater police
surveillance
· It did have symbolic significance ­ showed
vulnerability of the autocracy, won support
overseas and created martyrs which helped
populise the revolutionary cause…read more

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