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Slide 2

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Trends in Melting/Boiling Points
· From Na to Al, the m/b.p
increases due to stronger
metallic bonds. Al3+,Mg2+, Na1+
, the charge on the ion
increases so more delocalised
electrons
· Silicon has a macromolecular
structure
· The amount of van de waals
forces depends on the m/b.p.
P4, S8 and Cl2…read more

Slide 3

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Trends in Atomic Radii
· Decreases across a period
· This is because there a more protons and electrons being added
across the period
· The nuclear charge increases, pulling electrons closer to the
nucleus
· There's no extra shells, so no extra shielding meaning the size of
the atom decreases…read more

Slide 4

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Trends in First Ionisation Energy
· Number of protons in the
nucleus increases however
the shielding is the same
· The increased nuclear charge
means it gets increasingly
harder to remove an
electron.…read more

Slide 5

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Trends in Groups
· First Ionisation Energy · Atomic Radii Increases
Decreases · Down every group a shell is
· There is more shielding added, meaning the outer main
· The outer electron is further electron level is further away
away from the nucleus and from the nucleus and there for
therefore held less strongly the atom gets bigger…read more

Slide 6

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The Drops in Ionisation Energies
· Between group 2 and 3 · Between group 5 and 6
· Mg loses a 3s electron · Phosphorous has no paired
· Al loses a 3p electron electrons because each p
electron is in different orbitals.
· The p shell electron is already in
a higher energy level so easier to · Sulphur has two of its p
remove electrons paired so one of these
will be easier to remove, due to
electron repulsion theory.…read more

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