Treaty of Versailles REVISION NOTES

These are all of the notes I have made based on the Treaty of Versailles.

I'm not promising that everything is 100% correct, but they are what I was taught and what I have revised from, and they have gotten me good grades!

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Treaty of Versailles ­
(OCR History GCSE)
The armistice (to signal the end of WW1) was signed on...
11th November, 1918
Effects of WW1 ­
Most of Europe devastated by war ­ eg. large areas of Northern France and
Belgium in ruins.
Millions of soldiers killed or injured, on both sides.
Eg. 2,000,000 German soldiers killed.
Gov.'s of Germany and Austria-Hungary collapsed; these countries were
defeated and tired.
Victorious powers also exhausted ­ Britain and France almost bankrupt;
Only USA had strong economy.
Mood in 1919 ­
Many in Britain and France felt that Germany was to blame for the war and so
should be severely punished ­ reparations.
Britain lost so many men, public opinion put pressure on gov. to treat
Germany harshly in the peace treaty.
Germans didn't feel solely responsible for starting the war ­ BUT not invited
to peace conference and forced to accept the treaty.
Paris Peace Conference ­
Conference took place in Palace of Versailles (outskirts of Paris)
Lasted 12 months ­ 1919 to 1920
Delegates/representatives from 32 nations met in Jan. 1919 ...
BUT; none of the defeated nations were invited.
All important decisions made by the Big Three
Clemenceau, France
David Lloyd ­ George, Britain
Woodrow Wilson, France
Big 4 + Vittario, Italy
Big 5 + Kimochi Saionju, Japan
They didn't agree or get on well; they all wanted different things.
Wilson was very ill at the time.
By Abby Woolford

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Things began to break up in March, 1919, BUT...
On 25th March 1919, Lloyd-George issued the Fontainebleau Memorandum ­
Persuaded Clemenceau to agree to the League of Nations and to a more lenient
Persuaded Wilson to agree to the `war guilt' clause.
So, Lloyd-George and the Fontainebleau Memorandum helped prevent the
conference from collapse in March 1919.
Treaty of Versailles signed 28th June, 1919
The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty that dealt with Germany.…read more

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L ­ League of Nations:
Set up like a controlled Police force to enforce `universal peace' and prevent future
Germany weren't allowed to join either; not until they could show that they had
become a peace-loving nation.
Hated ­ the '14 Points' were unfair and they were insulted by not being allowed to
E ­ Extras:
Anschluss with Austria was forbidden; any unions between Austria and Germany
were banned.
Hated ­ Germany were left isolated and alone; weaker.…read more

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BUT, if too harsh enemies independence would lead boat was the only way to
will be made; another to peace. attack them ­ Protection.
The other treaties:
Could the Treaty be justified?
Alsace-Lorraine originally belonged to France, so they were only taking back
what was theirs.…read more

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Germany accepted the Treaty of Versailles in the first place; they could have
negotiated like Turkey did - They agreed to the harsh terms, so they can't
really complain.
The `Big 3' needed to satisfy their public as they were directly affected by the
war - So harsh measures had to be taken to relieve public pressure and satisfy
their countries.
The Treaty was punishing the people of Germany (revenge) rather than the
country itself ­ Unfair treatment.…read more

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David Lloyd-George:
Satisfied with ­ Protected the British navy; Germany's Empire was taken away from
Germany was becoming increasingly widespread and powerful, which threatened
Britain's Empire; so Britain had, once again, the greatest Empire. Also, the Navy was
their only protection, so felt more secure.
Not satisfied with ­ Reparations were too high and crippling.
If Germany spent all their money on reparations bills, they wouldn't be able to trade
with Britain, which would be bad for Britain's economy ­ Self-interest.…read more


Brittany - Team GR

This is brilliant thanks!

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