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Treatments in Clinical Psychology
Cognitive Treatment- Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Focuses on present behaviour and thoughts rather than how these thoughts
developed. It helps them to understand what reality is and what is not. It focuses on
the positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients.
The therapist accepts the patient's perception of reality, and then uses the
misperception to help the person manage. (Establish a therapeutic alliance).
It aims to allow the patient to use information from the world to make adaptive and
not maladaptive decisions, not aiming to cure schizophrenia, but to help the patient
function normally. (Psycho-education).
An agenda is set, in order for both parties to understand what they will gain from it.
The therapist then helps identify their faulty perceptions of the world and then
correct them. (Normalise the symptoms).
This is done by questioning and challenging thoughts so the patient realises what is
wrong and change their thoughts. Patients are also taught how to ignore the voices
they hear. (Cognitive Interventions).
Study to Support
Chadwick and Lowe (1993) found that CBT reduced delusions in 10/12 of the
patients in their study.
Sensky (2000) found that when using CBT and befriending tasks, it reduced the
positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, in otherwise chronic
schizophrenics who wouldn't respond to anti-psychotic drugs. This worked for at
least 9 months.
CBT has been shown to improve The treatment is very expensive and
positive symptoms of schizophrenia. time consuming.
The patient receives less Cannot always reduce negative
hallucination and delusions, symptoms so is not fully effective.
recovering more successfully than It is often used in conjunction with
with drug therapy. drug therapy so it is hard to measure
You can use the treatment in what is causing the improvement.
conjunction with other therapies. It requires active involvement, which
It allows induviduals to function in is not always possible.
society. Not rational to teach induviduals to
No side effects as known. see life through rose tinted glasses.
Social Treatment- Care in the Community
The therapy is influenced by agency theory. It focuses on how society could assist life
for a schizophrenic, with community bases programmes and not drug therapy.
In the 70's there was a movement against institutionalisation as it creates
dependency in the schizophrenics. Instead of psychiatric wards, community based
projects were set up to help schizophrenics integrate back into society.
The programmes provide accommodation, 24 hour care with support staff, and a
sense of independence. Residence can gain help at any time, but encouraged to
make their own decisions.
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It can also include the chance to work in co-operative businesses and sheltered social
firms. Mental health teams then provide help for the long term.
If some induviduals are in need of serious care, they are admitted to a psychiatric on
a short term basis, with the aim of getting them back into the community as soon as
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Useful as it can uncover Highly subjective and unfalsifiable
manifestations of underlying due to the problem of interpretation
conflicts between the ID and by the therapist.
Biological Treatment- Drug Therapy
Antipsychotic drugs (also known as neuroleptics) were first developed in the 1950's.
They help sedate the person, and reduce the intensity and frequency of
hallucinations and delusions, amongst other psychotic behaviours.
Drugs have now been developed.…read more
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The follow up study showed she made
good home and school adjustment, and gained weight at a normal acceptable rate.
It can be used in conjunction with It ignores the underlying issues of
other treatments. anorexia, and only deals with the
There is evidence to support that physical aspects, not the emotional
Token Economy is successful with issues.