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E.C.T is not considered to be a first line of treatment, but it may be
administered in cases where other treatments have failed. It is only
measurably effective where symptoms of catatonia are present, and
generally only treated when the catatonia is drug resistant. E.C.T works
by using an electrical shock to cause a short seizure. This seizure
releases a rush of neurotransmitters, which temporarily alters
functioning. E.C.T is given 3 or 4 times a week, and usually for a
maximum of 12 treatments. Patients are now given anaesthetic and
muscle relaxant, which makes the procedure less harmful than it was in
Common side effects of the procedure include short term memory loss,
confusion, paranoia, nausea, muscle aches and headaches.
Sometimes, there are longer lasting problems with memory and
paranoia. Rare cases result in death.
E.C.T can have an immediate beneficial effect, there is research to
show that there is no damage to the brain after the procedure, and there
is significant benefit when compared to a placebo. However, there is
also a risk of cognitive impairment and the procedure is unscientific and
it is not certain how it works. Also, there is the risk that E.C.T can be
used for social control, and has been in the past.
Antipsychotics are a series of drugs used to treat psychotic disorders,
including schizophrenia. They work to suppress hallucinations and
delusions. Typical antipsychotics are well established, whereas atypical
antipsychotics are newer and less widely used. However, atypical
antipsychotics tend to have fewer side effects and they act in different
ways to typical antipsychotic drugs.
Research suggests that people with schizophrenia have been shown to
have more dopamine activity in their brains. Too much dopamine activity
can cause too much perception. Therefore, researchers have created
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Atypical antipsychotics are a group of unrelated antipsychotics drugs
used to treat psychotic conditions. Atypical drugs work differently to
typical antipsychotics as they only attach to specific D.2 dopamine
receptors. Atypical drugs also tend to produce less serious side effects
like tardive diskinesia. They are good for positive symptoms, however
the effects on negative symptoms are slim.
Antipsychotic drugs have been praised for being highly effective, and
being supportive in preventing the reoccurrence of the disorder. Most
people are also tolerant of the side effects.…read more
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C.B.T has been shown to be very effective. However, it is not very
rational to teach patients to see life through `rose coloured spectacles'
and it doesn't work for everybody.
Psychoanalysis was first developed by Freud. Psychoanalysis refers to
treatment that included free association, TAT tests, hypnotic regression
and dream analysis. From these, the analyst uncovers the unconscious
conflicts that are causing the patients symptoms and interprets them for
the patient to be able to create a subjective resolution of the problem.…read more