Treating Abnormality


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Psychosurgery (Biological)
A now extremely rare biological treatment for psychological disorders
that involves systematically damaging the brain. The most extreme form,
the front lobotomy was a popular treatment for schizophrenia in the
1940s ­ early 1950s.
Procedures, how it works and uses
Lesioning areas of the brain. (Making small cuts)
Frontal lobotomy ­ disconnection of higher brain centres from lower
ones. So the nerves inbetween are severed.
The frontal lobotomy surgery in 1971, a hole was drilled through the
skull and the scalpel was inserted and waggled up and down.
Modern method ­ cingulotomy guided by brain scanning techniques.
Examples of how it could be used to treat disorders
It is used as a last resort for depression and OCD.
Used to be used for schizophrenia, but not in modern times.
No evidence to show improvement but only that the patient was
more manageable.
Now in modern times, the technology has improved, therefore the
equipment used to make the small cuts will be more accurate, and
the chance for an error will be lessened.
This didn't cure the patient, but made the patient more
manageable, as the treatment might not have cured the source of
the disorder. This means that the disorder might still be present,
even though symptoms aren't being displayed. Therefore, this
treatment is useless as a cure, and could be considered useless to
the patient in question.
People with server disorders may be unable to give full informed
consent. Therefore, it conflicts with ethical issues.
In conclusion, when 1st done it wasn't an accurate or precise surgery,
therefore highly dangerous, as the scalpel was waggled up and down.
Now in modern times it has become rare and a last resort technique, but
with more accuracy due to improvement in medical technology. However,
it still shouldn't be used due to ethics and due to the fact that it is seen
to only make the patient more manageable and not cure them. But, in
last resort cases then it should be considered as a possibility.

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ECT (Biological)
A treatment fore severely depressed patients who have proved resistant
to other forms of psychological and biological therapies. It involves
passing a small current through the brain to cause a epileptic like fit.
Procedures, how it works and uses
A small current is passed through the brain to induce a forced
seizure or fit, with violent electrical discharges in the brain and
behavioural convulsions.…read more

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If the patient can't give full
informed consent, then it makes it seem even more dangerous. This
treatment, in my opinion, should only be used as a last resort.…read more

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Drugs (Biological)
A substance which alters how the brain or body works for a certain
period of time.
Procedures, how it works and uses
The drug would contain a chemical(s) which would effect your body
or brain, to increase or block neurotransmitters for example.
Examples of how it could be used to treat disorders
o Antipsychotics
o Targets the hallucinations, delusion and thought control
o Reduces dopamine activity in the brain
o Modern drug clozapine used as less side effects than
cholopromazine.…read more

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Could make the patient concerned have an over reliance on the
drugs and could have the effect of stopping people getting through
issues which caused the disorder.
Might not cure the disorder, as might not affect the source.
Might not be able to give full informed consent. ­ Schizophernia
Unpleasant side effects ­ cholopromazine lead to movement
disorders often.
Doesn't take cognitive or emotional influence into account.…read more

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Psychoanalysis (Psychodynamic)
On slide show after this page.
Procedures, how it works and uses
On slide show after this page.
Examples of how it could be used to treat disorders
Depression and anxiety disorders ­ These are usually routed in
childhood, so this therapy helps the client work through these issues
to help them.
1952 Eysenek concluded this was worse than having no treatment at
Elkin et al. (1989) showed it was more effective than a placebo.…read more

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Therefore my opinion of this treatment is that it is not
an effective one, therefore it should only be considered if other
therapies fail.…read more

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Systematic desensitisation (Behavioural)
Systematic desensitisation is a behavioural therapy based on the
behavioural approach. It works via classical conditioning. This therapy is
assuming fear is a learned response. The aim of the treatment is to
extinguish the automatic feared response by counter conditioning to
replace it with a relaxed response.…read more

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Beck's Cognitive Therapy
(Cognitivebehavioural therapies)
This challenges irrational thoughts.
Procedures, how it works and uses
It considers depression to be the effect of a negative schema.
Irrational cognitions are challenged and replaced with more realistic
appraisals (cognitive restructuring)
Therapist and client identify negative thoughts via a diary.
Therapist then challenges the dysfunctional thinking, highlighting
positive events which contradict them.
Then the client is set homework of sorts, where they have to reality
text there fears.…read more


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