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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS




Small animals don't need a separate transport as the majority of things they need can be transported via
diffusion. However large animals do as diffusion would be to slow. Three main reasons why large
animals need a transport system are as followed:

Large animals have…

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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS




ADVANTAGES- less vulnerable to pressure, have control over body temperature which allows them
to survive in extreme conditions ­ hot and cold. Less complex reducing risks of clotting and bleeding
out.
DISADVANTAGES- Low metabolic rates, it's also hard to rise and lower the velocity of…

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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS




Each chamber of the heart has different muscle thicknesses.
Left Ventricle ­ This has thickest muscle. It's thicker Right Ventricle ­ Second thickest muscle. Thicker
than the right ventricle as it requires a powerful than the atria as it has to have an increased
contraction…

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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS




2) ATRIAL SYSTOLE

The heartbeat starts when the atria contract -both the right and left atria contract together. The
atria have a small contraction which forces blood into the ventricles through the already open
atrioventricular valves. This stretched the walls of the ventricles ensuring they…

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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS




When the ventricle is finished contracting, the heart muscle starts to relax, elastic tissues in the walls of
the ventricle start to recoil and the ventricle returns to its normal size. Pressure in the ventricle drops
very quickly ­ the pressure drops below the pressure…

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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS




The AVN then holds "delays" the wave of excitation, before reacting. It does this to allow the ventricles
to full with blood and ensure the atria have finished contracting. The AVN then passes the wave of
excitation onto the bundle of his.

The Bundle of…

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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS




QRS wave = wave of excitation passing over the bundle of his and into the purkyne fibres. Here the
ventricle pressure is higher than the arteries so the semi lunar valves are forced open pushing blood
upwards.

T wave= electrical recovery before next impulse. Here…

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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS




Carry blood back to the Very thin walls for
heart exchange of materials
At low pressure so walls such as oxygen
don't need to be thick Single layer of flattened
Large lumen to allow cells that reduce the
easy blood flow diffusion distance
Thinner layers…

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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS

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TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS- CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS





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