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The Circulatory System
In large animals and humans a transport system is needed to circulate chemicals around the body.
Oxygen and glucose are needed for respiration by every cell which needs to get rid of waste products
such as carbon dioxide and urea.
This is the function of the…

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The Structure of The Heart
Blood is pumped around the body by
a muscular heart. Blood travels away
from the heart in arteries. These
contract and pump the blood along.
This can be felt as a pulse.

Blood returns to the heart in veins.
These have thinner walls than

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2) Oxygen diffuses out of the red blood cell.

White Blood Cells
Produce antibodies and antitoxins to fight pathogens; some can engulf and destroy pathogens directly.

The Effect of Exercise on The Body
The muscles need energy in order to contract.
Muscle fibres contain many mitochondria to supply the energy…

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This is the amount of oxygen needed to break down the lactic acid and repay the oxygen needed by
the muscles previously.
The pulse and breathing rate remains high to repay the debt.

Kidney Failure
Kidney Dialysis
People with kidney failure can be kept alive by having dialysis treatment ­…

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3) Unfortunately this means that the patient can't fight any disease that comes along so they need to
be in totally sterile conditions for some time after the operation.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Kidney Dialysis and Transplants
Advantages Disadvantages
The patient must take drugs to suppress
their immune system…


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