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Chapter 5

Transport in Animals ­ Summary Notes
Small organisms:
Meet nutrient requirements by diffusion only
Large SA : vol. ratio
Inactive organisms ­ also manage by d iffusion
Larger active organisms:
Require more than diffusion
Have well organised t ransport systems with pumps (not including plants)
Humans (and all…

Page 2

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Chapter 5

Bottom ­ vena cava from lower body
Pulmonary veins:
Blood back from left and right lungs
2 branches (L + R lung)
Coronary arteries:
Surface of heart
Branch from aorta
Bring oxygenated
blood to cardiac muscle
Upper chambers
Blood from veins
Venae cavae R atrium
Pulmonary vein…

Page 3

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Chapter 5

Thinner than left
Small force for blood lungs
Left ventricle:
Thicker than right
Larger force required for blood rest of body
Semilunar valves ­ cusps are pushed shut when blood flows backwards
Cardiac muscle = myogenic
­ doesn't require nerve impulses to contract
Cardiac cycle ­ initiated by…

Page 4

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Chapter 5

Mostly water
Some solutes (glucose and urea)
Tissue fluid:
Formed when blood flows through c apillaries in tissues
Plasma leaks out
of capillary walls ­ seeps into s paces between tissue
Leaked plasma = tissue fluid
Contains fewer protein molecules, no RBCs, some WBCs
Most fluid seeps…


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