Transport in Animals: Summary notes

My summary notes from last year on transport in animals

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  • Created by: sxrcha
  • Created on: 17-10-15 14:36
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Chapter 5
Transport in Animals ­ Summary Notes
Small organisms:
Meet nutrient requirements by diffusion only
Large SA : vol. ratio
Inactive organisms ­ also manage by d iffusion
Larger active organisms:
Require more than diffusion
Have well organised t ransport systems with pumps (not including plants)
Humans (and all vertebrates) ­ c losed circulatory system
Closed circ. system ­ blood always e nclosed in vessels
Insects
Open circ. system ­ blood fills body cavity (h aemocoel )
Blood does not transport oxygen
Separate gas exchange system ­ made of tracheae (tubes)
Spiracle valves on surface ­ air passes through
Tracheae ­ carry air from atmosphere directly to tissues
Gas exchange surfaces ­ c lose
to cells ­ efficient diffusion
Humans:
Double circ. system ­ blood through heart t wice
in one circulation
Pulmonary circ. ­ to lungs
Systemic circ. ­ to rest of body
Fish ­ single circ. system
Single circ. system
Blood through heart o nce in one circulation
Heart gills body
Not as efficient as double
Blood loses pressure when going through capillaries in gas exchange
organs
Heart
Cardiac muscle ­ contracts rhythmically
4 chambers ­ separated by septum in centre
Aorta:
Largest artery
Arching at top of heart
Oxygenated blood to rest of body
Branches up to head and down to body
Pulmonary arteries:
Deoxygenated blood
Branches to left and right lung
Venae cavae:
Vena cava (singular)
Branch out vertically on right side of heart
Top ­ vena cava from head

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Chapter 5
Bottom ­ vena cava from lower body
Pulmonary veins:
Blood back from left and right lungs
2 branches (L + R lung)
Coronary arteries:
Surface of heart
Branch from aorta
Bring oxygenated
blood to cardiac muscle
Atria:
Upper chambers
Blood from veins
Venae cavae R atrium
Pulmonary vein L atrium
Ventricles:
Lower chambers
Blood from atria
L ventricle aorta
R ventricle pulmonary artery
Atrioventricular valves:
Between atria and ventricles
Left = bicuspid
Right = tricuspid
Cardiac cycle:
Sequence of events that make up…read more

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Chapter 5
Thinner than left
Small force for blood lungs
Left ventricle:
Thicker than right
Larger force required for blood rest of body
Semilunar valves ­ cusps are pushed shut when blood flows backwards
Cardiac muscle = myogenic
­ doesn't require nerve impulses to contract
Cardiac cycle ­ initiated by sinoatrial node (SAN) in wall of R atrium
SAN:
" Pacemaker "
Muscle cells in SAN ­ set pace for all cardiac muscle cells
Contraction ­ sends
wave of electrical activity over atrial walls
AVN:…read more

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Chapter 5
Mostly water
Some solutes (glucose and urea)
Tissue fluid:
Formed when blood flows through c apillaries in tissues
Plasma leaks out
of capillary walls ­ seeps into s paces between tissue
cells
Leaked plasma = tissue fluid
Contains fewer protein molecules, no RBCs, some WBCs
Most fluid seeps back
Remaining fluid is collected through valves and returned to blood through
lymph vessels/lymphatics
Oedema ­ buildup of tissue fluid
Fluid in lymphatics = lymph
Lymph ­ transported back to large veins ­ subclavian veins…read more

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