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Amelia Kirk

Transport in Animals summary

Transport systems in animals
transport systems in large multicellular organisms are needed because of: size, SA:V ratio,
and level of activity
animals need oxygen & nutrients to survive & need to remove waste products
large layers of cells, cells on the inside will…

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right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the left side pumps oxygenated blood
to the rest of the body
coronary arteries carry oxygenated blood to the heart itself (contraction can cause myocardial
infarction or angina)
atria receive blood from major veins: right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from vena…

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semilunar valves closing as ventricles start to relax

Control of the cardiac cycle
the heart is described as myogenic as it can initiate its own contraction, the muscle with
contract & relax rhythmically even if not in the body, and this property can cause fibrillation
(inefficient pumping)
I. heartbeat starts…

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carry blood away from heart at high pressure
small lumen to maintain high pressure
thick wall containing collagen to give it strength to withstand pressure
elastic tissue in the wall allows it to stretch & recoil when the heart pumps (felt as a pulse)
recoil maintains high pressure

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not all the tissue fluid returns back to the capillaries, some is drained away into the lymphatic
system which consists of a number of vessels similar to capillaries
eventually rejoins the blood system in the chest cavity
lymph fluid contains the same solutes as tissue fluid but w/ less oxygen…

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carbon dioxide entering red blood cells combines with water to form weak acid: carbonic
acid, catalysed by carbonic anhydrase:
CO2 + H2
O --> H2

carbonic acid dissociates to release hydrogen ions (H+ ) & hydrogen carbonate ions (HCO


hydrogencarbonate ions diffuse out of red blood cell into…


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