AS Geography - Transmigration in Indonesia.

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Transmigration in Indonesia.
· By early 1990s, outmigration has become a common response to overcrowded
conditions caused by rising population resulting in impoverishment.
· People from Central Java moving out 73% increase in outmigration from 1971
to 1980
· Government sponsored Transmigration Program
· From 1969 to 1989, this programme allocated 730,000 families from
overpopulated islands of Java
· Nearly half of these migrants went to Sumatra ­ particularly its Southern
· Smaller numbers went to Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Irian Jaya
· Land disputes with indigenous inhabitants
· Deforestation of sensitive rainforest areas
· Problems of agricultural productivity and social infrastructure
· Sparsely populated areas became increasingly populated
Migrants were often moved to entirely new 'transmigration villages', constructed in
regions that had been relatively unimpacted by human activity. By settling on this land,
natural resources were used up and lands became overgrazed, resulting in
· Soil and climate unproductive compared to the volcanic soil of Java and Bali
· Settlers often lacked farming skills
· Programme failed to improve the situation of the migrants
Cultural implications:
· Indonesians of different ethnic backgrounds and occupations were being
increasingly intermingled.
· 1990s violent conflicts between some transmigrant and indigenous people in
· Hundreds killed ­ Madurese transmigrant and the indigenous Dayak people
August 2000, Asian financial crisis and the fall of the Suharto government, the
Indonesian government officially cancelled the largescale transmigration program, due
to lack of funds.
The transmigration programme was the target of extensive opposition:
· indigenous population
· foreign and domestic observers

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Many saw the program as part of the Javabased Indonesian government to extend
greater economic and political control over other regions.
Under the restructured Department of Manpower and Transmigration, the Indonesian
government maintains the transmigration program, although on a smaller scale than
previous decades. The department assists in annually relocation approximately 15,000
families or nearly 60,000 people and allocated a transmigration budget of $270 million
a year.…read more


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