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Page 1

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NaOH
12
+6 Chromium Cr2O72- CrO42-
1a) R = Zn, C = HCl

11
E = Zn --> Zn2+
orange

acid

yellow

solution H+ solution

1b) R = FeSO4, C = H2SO4(aq)

E = Fe2+ --> Fe3+ 1

1c) R = 1o/2o Alcohol/ Aldehyde

R = H2O2, C = NaOH…

Page 2

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+3 Cobalt Co(OH)3(H2O)3 [Co(NH3)6]3+

brown

dark brown
precipitate solution

R = O2,C = NaOH

E = O2 --> 2OH-

R = H2O2, C = NaOH

Slow
E = H2O2 --> OH-
1 R = H2O2, C = NaOH

2
E = H2O2 --> OH-

Conc

NaOH

Fast
HCl or

CoCl42-…

Page 3

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NaOH or NH3

or Na2CO3
7
+3 Iron [Fe(H2O)6]3+ Fe(OH)3(H2O)3
8
Yellow

acid / H+ brown

solution precipitate

2a)R = O2,

E = O2 --> H2O

2b) R = KMnO4,

R = O2,C = NaOH

1a) R = Zn, C = HCl

1 2 C = H2SO4(aq)

E = O2…

Page 4

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Copper




Conc

HCl NaOH

[CuCl4 ]2- 5 or

NH3 XS NH3
1 2
H 2O 6
+2 Yellow green

[Cu(H2O)6]2+ Cu(OH)2(H2O)4 [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+
solution 4 3
7 acid

CuCO3 Blue

Blue

H 2O Deep Blue

H+
Na2CO3 solution precipitate solution

green

precipitate

Page 5

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Aluminium



NaOH
or

NH3

or

Na2CO3 XS NaOH

1 2

+3 [Al(H2O)6]3+ Al(OH)3(H2O)3 [Al(H2O)2(OH)4]-
4 3
acid

acid

Colourless

H+
White

H+
Colourless

solution precipitate solution

Page 6

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Silver


NH3(aq)
2
[Ag(NH3)2]+ AgCl
Conc

NH3 Cl-
Colourless

White

1
solution 4 precipitate
Used in 5 Br- 3
+1 Photographic [Ag(S2O3)2 ]3- AgBr [Ag(H2O)2]+
fixing S2O32-(aq)

Colourless

Cream

Colourless

solution precipitate I- solution


AgI

yellow

precipitate

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