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A transformer is a device that steps-up or steps-down an
alternating voltage from the primary coil to the
secondary coil.

Circuit symbol for a transformer:

How a transformer works:

The primary coil is supplied with alternating voltage which sets up a varying magnetic field around the
coil and extends…

Page 2

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Energy losses in transformers:

Heat loss from the resistance in the winding of the coil: as current passes through the wire, heat
is released.
Eddy currents losses in the core: eddy currents are circulating currents induced in the core by
the magnetic field from the primary coil, producing heat.

Page 3

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How energy is transported:

The power station generates electricity with low voltage and high current, which is then stepped up to
be transported with high voltage and low current to reduce heat production in the transmission cables,
which are made from copper as it is a cheap and good conductor.…





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