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Transformation of surgery revision…read more

Slide 2

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Dealing with pain
Before anaesthetics it was
difficult to operate on a patient BREAKTHROUGH
in pain, so operations had to be
fast, simple and not involve NUMBER 1
going too deep into the body.
The most common type of
operation was amputations.
However, this problem was
solved by 1900.…read more

Slide 3

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The first anaesthetics
Nitrous oxide (or laughing gas) discoveries to have anaesthetic
properties by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1799. some surgeons had
some success with it and it reduced pain but did not knock them
out, meaning that its impact was limited.
In 1846, American surgeon named John Collins Warren used
ether as an anaesthetic. It was bit better than laughing gas as
made patient unconscious ­ famous British surgeon and
showman Robert Liston used ether as amputation in 1847.
However, ether was an irritant that caused coughing and
sickness and also very liable to catch fire…read more

Slide 4

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James Simpson
Simpson, after inviting friends over who inhaled various chemicals
(including chloroform), released chloroform was very effective
anaesthetic and started using during an operation in 1847.
· It become popular after Queen Vic used it during childbirth of her 8th
in 1853
· John Snow invented a special inhaler to regulate doses, which
helped prevent heart problems some patients found affected them
after using chloroform
· Even though it was difficult to get dose right and some people died
during surgery after being given too much, still enormous
breakthrough ­ Simpson = 1st man to receive knighthood for his
contribution to medicine…read more

Slide 5

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Why some people were opposed to the
use of anaesthetics
· Some devout Christians thought pain, particularly childbirth pain, was
part of God's plan for human beings ­ we are supposed to feel pain ­
some knew saw pain as a blessing. Queen Vic approval helped the
public accept chloroform more willingly.
· 1848 ­ Hannah Greener st
died while given chloroform during operation
to remove a toenail ­ 1 death from using chloroform scared
· New anaesthetic encouraged surgeons to carry out more complex
procedures and go deeper into the body but since problems of
infection and blood loss not solved, not a good thing and in 1870's
the death rate from surgery reached a new high
· Some doctors thought an unconscious patient was more lively to die
than one who was awake and screaming blue murder…read more

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Dealing with infection
Following the development of
anaesthetics, deaths from surgery
increased. This was because surgeons
did more and more complex operations
but had not solved the problem of
infection. In the 1980's surgeons still had
very little understanding of how germs
spread and what causes gangrene and BREAKTHROUGH
sepsis ­ both big killers of surgical
patients. NUMBER 2
Even after the germ theory was
published in 1861 it took 6 years to apply
it to surgery and the treatment of
patients. It was Joseph Lister who made
the breakthrough and developed the first
effective antiseptics and helped solve
the problem of infection…read more

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