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The Tourist Area Life Cycle [TALC Model]
Natalie Smyth Form: T3
Underlined phrase = One of the three key characteristics for this stage remember this
for the exam!!!
E.G.: An example of a place that applies to the stage
Stage One: Exploration
A small number of tourists independently explore a new location, either for personal
adventure or to experience new cultures. They will have found their own transport as the
destination will have poor or no access for mass tourism. Economic, social and
environmental impacts are virtually nil.
E.G.: In China, the largest railway line is being prepared to accommodate
passengers, taking them up to Tibet, which is inaccessible.
Stage Two: Involvement
The destination begins to develop, travel companies start to organise transport links. As
acceptance by the locals increases then the destination becomes more popular. Travel
and accommodation facilities are improved. Local people become more involved in the
promotion of the area.
Stage Three: Development
Early `explorers' will no longer visit. Local people become more involved in promotion,
attraction more visitors and the area becomes established as a tourist destination, with
a defined market. In LEDCs, control passes from local to MEDC private companies.
Package holidays begin, meaning that the number of tourists raises quite rapidly.
Massive building projects of transport, accommodation and attractions. A tourist
season will have emerged and there is a lot of advertising.
E.G.: An example of this is Oman, where there is an investment from both public
and private companies, it has seven international hotels.
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Stage Four: Consolidation
Tourism has become an important economic and social activity, adversely affecting
`traditional' economies and lifestyles. Agricultural land is given over to resort building,
without a simultaneous benefit in increased wealth, jobs, etc, in the local community.
Resentment occurs. Numbers of tourists continue to rise but the rate of increase slows
down. There is extensive marketing to extend the season and attract more tourists.
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Please note: Once a destination in the TALC model as reached Stage Five,
they will EITHER Decline or Rejuvenate.…read more