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The global criminal economy:
Globalisation of crime = an increasing interconnectedness of crime across national borders
Globalisation has created new opportunities for crime and new means of committing crime
Castells: global criminal economy is worth over £1 trillion per annum through forms such as...
Arms trafficking, smuggling of illegal immigrants, cyber crimes and the drugs trade
Global risk consciousness:
Risk consciousness of crime is seen as global and the risk knowledge comes from the media which
creates a moral panic usually intensified by politicians and social controls toughen up (e.g. media
creates a moral panic about the supposed threats such as terrorism)
Globalisation, capitalism and crime:
Left realists: materialistic culture of success promoted by mass media has increased globalisation.
Taylor: Globalisation has lead to the changes in crime.
Globalisation has created crime at both supply and demand countries.
Globalisation has lead to new patterns of employment which has lead to new crime opportunities.
STRENGH - LINKS GLOBAL TRENDS IN CAPITALIST ECONOMIES WHICH CHANGES PATTERNS IN CRIME.
HOWEVER IT DOESN'T EXPLAIN HOW THE CHANGES TURNS PEOPLE INTO CRIMINALS, AS NOT ALL POOR
PEOPLE ARE CRIMINALS
Crime against the environment
Beck The massive increase in productivity and the technology that sustains it have created new
manufactured risks many of these risks involve harm to the environment and its consequences for
humanity (e.g. Global warming caused by greenhouse gases)
Traditional criminology Situ and Emmons: environmental crime is an `unauthorised act or omission
that violates the law'. Investigates the patterns and causes of law breaking
Green criminology White: any action that harms the physical environment and/or human and
non-human animals within it, even if no law has been broken
Types of criminology (South):
1. Crimes of air pollution
2. Crimes of deforestation
3. Crimes of species decline and animals rights
4. Crimes of water pollution
1. State violence against oppositional groups
2. Hazardous waste and organised crime
Evaluation of green criminology: recognises the growing importance of environmental issues and the
need to address the harms/risks of environmental damage to humans and animals
Illegal or deviant activities by state agencies
McLaughlin: 4 categories of state crime
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Political Crimes (e.g. censorship)
2. Crimes by security and police forces (e.g. genocide)
3. Economic crimes (e.g. violation of health and safety laws)
4. Social and cultural crimes (e.g. institutional racism)
The scale of state crime:
The power of the state enables it to commit extremely large-scale crimes with widespread
victimisation (e.g.…read more