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1 | Run for your life

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Unit 5: Energy, Exercise and Coordination
Topic 7: Run for your life.
7.1 Movement:
Muscles connect and cause movement at a joint ­ usually by working in co-ordination with other

Muscles can only pull and cannot push,
at any joint two or…

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If you look at figure 2 it shows the picture of a joint.
The joint consists of the following components and here's what they do:

Muscle: cause movement.
Bone: Support and structure.
Tendon: Attach muscle to bone
Cartilage: Absorbs synovial fluid and acts…

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Bones are usually susceptible to stresses such as:
Compression: Pushing
Tension: Pulling
Shear: Sliding

Types of synovial joints include:
Ball and socket: Ball like surface in cup like end ­ movement in all three planes.
Hinge: Convex shape in concave - restricted to one…

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Figure 3 (note: do not need to know `T tubule')

Myofibrils are made of the 2 proteins:
-thick protein filaments
(Bulbous heads)

-thin protein filaments

A Sarcomere is one set of myosin and actin fibres.
Loads of these sarcomeres make up the…

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The thick myosin filaments lie in central part.
The actin and myosin slide past each other.
the sarcomere shortens and muscle contracting.

Actin can be further broken down:
-Troponin has binding sites, which are covered by tropomyosin.

Sliding Filament theory:

Figure 5

How it…

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3. Troponin moves ­ as a result tropomyosin moves.
4. Binding sites exposed.
5. Myosin forms cross bridges
6. ATPase hydrolyses ATP on myosin head to ADP
7. Energy release: angle of myosin head changed.
8. Power stroke
9. Myosin moves to the centre…

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-contain many electrons around phosphate groups
High energy potential.

Energy released when:
-Enzyne ATPase hydrolises ATP,
-ATP turns to ADP+Pi
-This seperation is what releases energy.


Glucose + oxygen Carbon Diaoxide + water + energy

C 6 H 12 O6 + 6O2 6CO2…

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3. Two inorganic phosphate groups are added to the Triose phosphate
Triose Phosphate now oxidised by a dehydrogenase
+ NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
-2NAD converted into 2 reduced NAD or 2NADH,
-NAD is reduced, gains electrons.
-2 ATPs are produced by picking up the…


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