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Run for your life
Unit 5: Energy, Exercise and Coordination
Topic 7: Run for your life.
7.1 Movement:
Muscles connect and cause movement at a joint ­ usually by working in co-ordination with other
Muscles can only pull and cannot push,
at any joint two or more muscles are needed to cause movement.
A Pair of muscles that work together to cause movement is called: antagonistic muscles, as they
work together by working against each other.
e.g.…read more

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If you look at figure 2 it shows the picture of a joint.
The joint consists of the following components and here's what they do:
Muscle: cause movement.
Bone: Support and structure.
Tendon: Attach muscle to bone
Cartilage: Absorbs synovial fluid and acts as a shock absorber.
Pad of Cartilage: Additional protection.
Fibrous Capsule: Encloses joint.
Synovial membrane: Secretes synovial fluid.
Synovial fluid: Lubricant.
Ligament: Attaches bones together.…read more

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Bones are usually susceptible to stresses such as:
Compression: Pushing
Tension: Pulling
Shear: Sliding
Types of synovial joints include:
Ball and socket: Ball like surface in cup like end ­ movement in all three planes.
Hinge: Convex shape in concave - restricted to one plane.
Gliding: One flat surface slides on another flat surface.
Pivot: Part of bone fits into ring shaped structure.…read more

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Figure 3 (note: do not need to know `T tubule')
Myofibrils are made of the 2 proteins:
-thick protein filaments
(Bulbous heads)
-thin protein filaments
A Sarcomere is one set of myosin and actin fibres.
Loads of these sarcomeres make up the Myofibrils.
Structure of a sarcomere:
Figure 4
The Z-line is the imaginary line where one sarcomere joins another.…read more

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The thick myosin filaments lie in central part.
The actin and myosin slide past each other.
the sarcomere shortens and muscle contracting.
Actin can be further broken down:
-Troponin has binding sites, which are covered by tropomyosin.
Sliding Filament theory:
Figure 5
How it works:
When a muscle is stimulated:
-action potential
1. Ca2+ ions diffuse ­ from sarcoplasmic reticulum
2. Ca2+ binds to troponin ­ on actin.…read more

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3. Troponin moves ­ as a result tropomyosin moves.
4. Binding sites exposed.
5. Myosin forms cross bridges
6. ATPase hydrolyses ATP on myosin head to ADP
7. Energy release: angle of myosin head changed.
8. Power stroke
9. Myosin moves to the centre of sarcomere.
10. More ATP released ­ myosin to original place.
11. If and when simulation stops, Ca2+ goes back to the sarcoplasmic reticulum.…read more

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-contain many electrons around phosphate groups
High energy potential.
Energy released when:
-Enzyne ATPase hydrolises ATP,
-ATP turns to ADP+Pi
-This seperation is what releases energy.
Glucose + oxygen Carbon Diaoxide + water + energy
C 6 H 12 O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H 2 O + 38AT P
-Cytoplasm of cells and sarcoplasm of muscles.
-no oxygen needed
-Glucose ­ pyruvate
-produces rapid ATP
-Galactose (glucose polymer) must first be split into Glucose
1.…read more

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3. Two inorganic phosphate groups are added to the Triose phosphate
Triose Phosphate now oxidised by a dehydrogenase
+ NAD (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
-2NAD converted into 2 reduced NAD or 2NADH,
-NAD is reduced, gains electrons.
-2 ATPs are produced by picking up the inorganic ATPs,
-and as the hydrogen is removed by NAD the energy released is used to form 2ATPs.…read more


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